Eyiuche Ifeoma Olibie, Ugochukwu feyinwa Offor, Chidi Geoffrey Onyebuchi


The purpose of the study was to identify the hindrances to distance learning program in two cities in Anambra State. Three research questions guided the study. The study adopted survey research design. A sample of 180 students and 30 facilitators (total 210) were randomly selected to participate in the study. A 15-item questionnaire was developed and used to collect data from the respondents. The data collected was analyzed using weighted mean. Findings indicated that poor Information and Communications Technology (ICT) knowledge and skills, lack of enough time for the students’ study, work pressure, academic stress, poor remuneration to the facilitators and other administrative and mode of delivery issues hinder Distance Learning and prevent some people for not availing themselves of the opportunity for distance learning program. It was thus recommended among other things that Government and management of the various centers should regularly train their staff and students of Distance Learning on computer and technological applications to optimize the potentials of Distance Learning. Also, students enrolling for Distance Learning should properly obtain knowledge of Information and Communications Technology; organize their time and resources to limit academic stress. Finally some limitations of the findings were noted and suggestions for further research, made.


Article visualizations:

Hit counter


distance learning, hindrances, barriers, information and communications technology, technology competencies


African Virtual University (2014). African virtual university quality assurance (QA) framework for open, distance and e-learning programmes. URL: http://www.avu.org/images/Documents/QA_FRAMEWORK.pdf

Ahalt, S. &Fecho, K. (2015). Ten emerging technologies for higher education. RENCI, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.Text. http://dx.doi.org/10.7921/G0PN93HQ

Akande, S. O (2011). Computer and internet facilities use in distance education: a survey of sandwich students of university of Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. Library Philosophy and Practice, 5, (2) 1-11

Bannier, B. J. (2016). Global trends in transnational education. International Journal of Information and Education Technology, 6(1), 80–84.

Belanger, F., & Jordan, D. H. (2004). Evaluation and implementation of distance learning: Technologies, tools and techniques. Hershey, PA: Idea Group.

Berge, Z. L. &Muilenburg, L. (2005). Student barriers to online learning: A factor analytic study. Distance Education, 26 (1), 29–48

Berge, Z.L. and Muilenburg, L.Y. (2001). Obstacles faced at various stages of capability regarding distance education in institutions of higher learning. Tech Trends 46(4), 40-45

Bonk, C. J. (2016). In what ways are instructional technologists underrated? A review of “humans are underrated: what high achievers know that brilliant machines never will,” by Geoff Colvin (2015). NY: Portfolio/Penguin. Educational Technology.56(2), 56-58. Retrieved from http://www.publicationshare.com/4

Catalano, A. (2015). The effect of a situated learning environment in a distance education information literacy course. Journal of Academic Librarianship, 41(5), 653-659.

Erickson, M. J., &Larwin, K. (2016). The potential impact of online/distance education for students with disabilities in higher education. International Journal of Evaluation and Research in Education (IJERE), 5(1)-76 ~ 81

Federal Republic of Nigeria (2004). National Policy on Education (4th Edition). Lagos. NERDC Press.

Holden, J. T & Westfall, J. L. (2010). Instructional media selection guide for distance learning: Implications for blended learning & virtual worlds. Macon: United States Agency for Distance learning.

Isaac, E. P. (2015). Barriers to adult education participation, distance education, and adult learning.Encyclopedia of Information Communication Technologies and Adult Education Integration. DOI: 10.4018/978-1-61692-906-0.ch067

Jimoh, M. (2013). An appraisal of the open and distance learning programme in Nigeria. Journal of Education and Practice, 4(3), 1-8

Jung I, Meng Wong &Belawati T (2013). Quality assurance in distance education and e-learning.Challenges and solutions from Asia. Los Angeles: SAGE.

Kumi-Yeboah, A. (2010). A Look at the trend of distance and adult education in Ghana. International Forum of Teaching and Studies, 6(1), 19–27

Lloyd, S. A., Byrne, M. & McCoy, T. S. (2012). Faculty-perceived barriers of online education. Merlot Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, 8, (1), 1-12

Marques, J. (2013). A short history of MOOCs and distance learning.MOOC News & Reviews.


Mbonu, F. &Ubbaonu, B. N. (2010). Administrative problems of open distance education in Nigeria: A case study of national Open University of Nigeria. Proceedings of the 1st International Technology, Education and Environment Conference of African Society for Scientific Research (ASSR). Co-Published By: Human Resource Management Academic Research Society 309

Moore, M., &Kearsley, G. (2012). Distance education: A systems view of online learning (3rd ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.

Muilenburg, L.Y. & Berge, Z.L. (2001). Barriers to distance education: A factor analytic study. The American Journal of Distance Education, 11(2), 39-54.

Nakpodia, E. D. (2010). Management of distance education in the development of Nigeria’s education.Kamla-Raj Journal of Social Science, 23(1), 45-52

Nekongo-Nielson, H. (2015). The contributions of open and distance learning to national development in Namibia.Retrieved from http://pcf4.dec.uwi.edu/viewpaper.php?id+351&print=1.

Nesliha, F. E. R & Mustafa, E. R. (2016). The effects of student-content interaction on academic performance in distance-learning courses. International Journal on New Trends in Education and Their Implications, 7(3), 60-68

Niari, M., Evaggelia, M. &Lionarakis, A. (2016). The pygmalion effect in distance learning: A case study at the Hellenic Open University. European Journal of Open, Distance and e-Learning, 19 (1), 36-53

O’Kelly, M., Garrison, J., Merry, B., &Torreano, J. (2015). Building a peer- learning service for students in an academic library portal. Libraries and the Academy, 15(1), 163–182. http://doi:10.1353/pla.2015.0000

Offorma, G. C. (2006). Distance education in the Arts. Journal of Curriculum and Instruction, 6 (1), 37-50

Ojo, D. O &Olakulehin, F. K (2006). Attitudes and perceptions of students to open and distance learning in Nigeria.International review of research in open and distance learning, 7(1), 1-9.

Ossiannilsson, E., Williams, K., Camilleri, A. F. & Brown, M. (2015). Quality models in online and open education around the globe: State of the art and recommendations. Oslo: International Council for Open and Distance Education (ICDE)

Özmen, B. &Atıcı, B. (2015). The effects of social networking sites in distance learning on learners’ academic achievements. European Journal of Open, Distance and E-Learning, 17(2), 61-75. Retrieved from doi:10.2478/eurodl-2014- 0019

Pityana, N. B. (2009). Open distance learning in the developing world: Trends, progress and Challenges. Being Keynote Speech Delivered on the Occasion of the M – 2009 23rd ICDE World Conference on Open and Distance Education with Theme: “Flexible Education for All: Open – Global – Innovative,” 7 – 10 June, 2009, Maastricht, the Netherlands.

Schepens, J. J., van der Slik, F. & van Hout, R. (2016). L1 and L2 Distance Effects in Learning L3 Dutch. Language Learning, 66: 224–256. doi: 10.1111/lang.12150

Wakahiu, J & Shaver, R. (2015). Perception and experience of distance learning for women: Case of the higher education for sisters in Africa (HESA) program in West Africa. Journal of Education & Social Policy, 2, 3.

Wakahiu, J. P., &Kangethe, S. P. (2014). Efficacy of online distance learning: Lessons from the Higher Education for Sisters in Africa Program. European Journal of Research and Reflection in Educational Sciences, 2(1), 25. Retrieved from http://www.idpublications.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/03/EFFICACY- OF-ONLINE-DISTANCELEARNING-LESSONS-FROM-THE-HIGHER- EDUCATION-FOR-SISTERS-IN-AFRICAPROGRAM.pdf

Yaqub, O. N. (2016). Open and distance education in relation to socio-economic development by professor. Text of the convocation lecture delivered at the fifth convocation of the National Open University of Nigeria (Noun) On Friday, 15th January, 2016 at its permanent site, Abuja. Retrieved from http://nou.edu.ng/uploads/fileuploads/K8O6eMCId81452864362.pdf.


  • There are currently no refbacks.





Copyright © 2015. European Journal of Open Education and E-learning Studies (ISSN 2501-9120) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing GroupAll rights reserved.

This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library (Biblioteca Nationala a Romaniei). All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms.

All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).



Flag Counter