GOAL COMMITMENT AND PSYCHOLOGICAL RESILIENCE AMONG CYCLING ATHLETES

Bahadır Altay, Gülsüm Baştuğ, İbrahim İhsan Arıkan

Abstract


Cycling sport is one of the sports that require physical and psychological resilience. It is thought that athletes should show physical and psychological resilience to reach specific target, find solution for unexpected, sudden problems, be patient and be determined in this sport that requires physical and psychological resilience that is done under extreme conditions. It is important to examine goal commitment and psychological resilience of cycling athletes for performance improvement, success motivation and contribution to the studies in this field. Purpose: This study aimed to examine goal commitment and psychological resilience of elite cycling athletes. 94 elite bicycle athletes participating in national and international races between the ages of 18 and 27 participated voluntarily. Resilience Scale for Adults, developed by Friborg et al. (2003), was used to determine psychological resilience of athletes. Goal Commitment Scale, developed by Hollenbeck, Williams and Klein (1989) and adapted to Turkish by Şenel and Yıldız (2016), was used to determine goal commitment. Scale reliability coefficient was found to be 0.913. In conclusion, no significant differences were found between sex and psychological resilience and goal commitment. But, significant differences were found between sports ages and subscales of self-perception, perception of future, and structural type of Resilience Scale for Adults. Significant difference was found between sports ages and goal commitment. As sports age increase, so did goal commitment. There was no significant correlation between goal commitment and psychological resilience. Goal commitment and psychological resilience training is recommended for different sports branches requiring physical and psychological resilience.

 

Article visualizations:

Hit counter

DOI

Keywords


cycling athletes, goal commitment, psychological resilience

References


Avan, D.M. (2013). Determination of some physical and physiological profiles of elite cyclists, Selcuk University, Health Sciences Institute, Master Thesis, Konya.

Bartone, P. T., & Hystad, S. W. (2010) Increasing mental hardiness for stress resilience in operational settings. In P. T. Bartone, B. H. Johnsen, J. Eid, J. M. Violanti & J. C. Laberg (Eds.), Enhancing human performance in security operations: International and law enforcement perspective (pp. 257–272). Springfield, Il: Charles C. Thomas.

Basım HN, Çetin F. (2011). Yetişkinler için psikolojik dayanıklılık ölçeği’nin güvenilirlik ve geçerlilik çalışması. Türk Psikiyatri Dergisi, 22:104–14.

Burton, D., Naylor, S., & Holliday, B. (2001). Goal-setting in sport: Investigating the goal effectiveness paradox. In R. Singer, H. A. Hausenblas, & C. M. Janelle (Eds.), Handbook of research on sport psychology (2nd ed., pp. 497–528). New York: Wiley.

Canadian Cycling Association Long Term Athlete Development, Volume 1. 2008. Canadian Cycling Association, Ottawa, www.cyclingcanada.ca/development-programs/cycling-ltads/

Carron, A. V., Hausenblas, H., and Eys, M.A. (2005) Group dynamics in sport (3rd ed), Morgantown, WV: Fitness Information Technology Inc.

Connaughton, D., Wadey, R., Hanton, S., Jones, G. (2008). The development and maintenance of mental toughness: Perceptions of elite Performers, Journal of Sport Sciences, 26, 83–95.

Cowden , R.G.,Fuller, D.K., Anshel,M.H. (2014). Psychological Predictors of Mental Toughness in Elite Tennis: An Exploratory Study in Learned Resourcefulness and Competitive Trait Anxiety, Perceptual & Motor Skills, 119, 3, 1-18.

Deveson, A. (2003). Resilience. South Australia: Griffin Press.

Farrell KC, Reisinger KD, Tillman MD. Force and Repetition In Cycling, 2003.

Friborg, O., Hjemdal, O., Rosenvinge, J. H.and Martinussen, M. 2003. A new rating scale for adult resilience: what are the central protective resources behind healthy adjustment? International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, 12(2): 65–76.

Hollenbeck, J. R., Williams, C. L., & Klein, H. J. (1989). An empirical examination of the antecedents of commitment to difficult goals. Journal of Applied Psychology, 74, 18–23.

Horn, T. (2008). Advances In Sport Psychology. Leeds: Human Kinetics

Işık, Ş. (2016). Developing The Psychological Hardiness Scale: The Validity and Reliability Study, The Journal of Happiness & Well-Being, 4(2), 165-182

Jones, G., Hanton, S., Connaughton, D. (2002). “What is this thing called mental toughness? An investigation of elite sport performers.” Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 14, 205-218.

Karimi, S., Jaafari, A., Ghamari, M., Esfandiary, M., Mazandarani, F. S., Daneshvar, S. & Ajami, M. (2016). A comparison of Type II Diabetic patients with healthy people: Coping strategies, hardiness, and occupational life quality. International Journal of High Risk Behaviors Addiction, 5(1), 1-6.

Kress, J.L., and Statler, T. (2007) ‘A naturalistic investigation of former Olympic cyclists’ cognitive strategies for coping with exertional pain during performance’, Journal of Sport Behavior, 30, 428-452.

Locke, E. A., Shaw, K. R, Saari, L. M., & Latham, G. P.(1981). Goal setting and task performance: 1968-1980. Psychological Bulletin, 90, 125-152.

Locke, E.A., and Latham, G.P. (1990) A theory of goal setting and task performance, New York: Prentice Hall.

Locke, E.A. (1996) ‘Motivation through conscious goal setting’, Applied & Preventive Psychology, 5, 117-124.

Locke, E. A., Latham, G.P. (2002). Building a practically useful theory of goal setting and task motivation: A 35- year odyssey. American Psychologist, 57(9), 705-717.

Lorenzo, J.C.T. (2010). Team Mental Toughness’: A Case Study Of Professional Road Cycling, Roehampton University, Sport and Exercise Science Research Centre School of Human and Life Sciences, 12-42.

Luthans F., Avolio, B.J., Avey, J.B., Norman, S.W. (2006). Psychological capital development: Toward a micro-intervention. J Organizational Behav, 27, 387–93.

Naylor, J.C. and D.R. Ilgen, 1984, “Goal-setting: A theoretical analysis of a motivational technology”, in B. Staw and L.L. Cummings (eds.), Research in Organizational Behavior, 6, (JAI press).

Maddi, S. R. (2005). On hardiness and other pathways to resilience. American Psychology, 60, 261–262.

Miller, S. and Hill, P.M. (1999) Sport Psychology for Cyclists, Colorado: VeloPress

Nicholls A., Polman R., Levy A., Backhouse S. (2009). “Mental toughness in sport: Achievement level, gender, age, experience, and sport type differences”, Personality and Individual Differences , 47,73–75.

Olds TS, Norton KI, Lowe EL, Olive S, Reay F, Ly S. (1995). Modeling road-cycling performance. Journal of Applied Physiology,78-4:1596-1611.

Pehlivan, H. (2014). Sports Mental Toughness Questionnaire (SMTQ) of Adaptation: Validity and Reliability, Celal Bayar University, Health Sciences Institute, Master Thesis, Manisa.

Senel, E., Yıldız, M. (2016). Goal Commitment Scale: Turkish Adaptation, Validity and Reliability in Students Studying in the Field of Physical Education and Sport, CBU Journal of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, 11(2), 58-65.

Taylor and Kress, (2006) ‘Psychology of cycling’, in J. Dosil (ed), The Sport Psychologist’s Handbook: A Guide for Sport-Specific Performance Enhancement (pp. 325-350), Chichester, UK: Wiley.

Weinberg, R.S., Gould, D. (2011). Foundations of sport and exercise psychology. 5th ed. Champaign, Ill: : Human Kine




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.46827/ejpe.v0i0.1372

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2018 Bahadır Altay, Gülsüm Baştuğ, İbrahim İhsan Arıkan

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Copyright © 2015-2018. European Journal of Physical Education and Sport Science (ISSN 2501 - 1235) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing Group. All rights reserved.


This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library (Biblioteca Nationala a Romaniei). All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms. All authors who send their manuscripts to this journal and whose articles are published on this journal retain full copyright of their articles. All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).