OPPOSITE PSYCHOLOGICAL STATES ASSOCIATED WITH RUNNING IN SOLITUDE AND STREET RACE PARTICIPATION

Júlia Bősze Patakiné, Márton Rákóczi, Szilvia Boros, Attila Szabo

Abstract


Running is associated with positive acute psychological effects. However, the context of running, which has received little empirical attention to date, could be expected to mediate the related subjective experiences. In this in-situ (real life) cross-sectional study, we compared the subjective psychological states before and after running in solitude and in street race running. Seventy males (n = 31 running alone and n = 39 running in a street race) completed the short version of the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), rated their core affect (conceptualized as the momentarily perceived overall physical and psychological feeling state), and their appraised satisfaction with the completed run. Although the two groups did not differ in satisfaction with their run, except for negative affect which did not change in either of the groups, the results revealed opposite trends in psychological experiences in all measures. Positive affect, mental-, and physical core affect increased after running in solitude while they all decreased after the street race. The current results suggest that peak affective experience occurs after the run when people plan and perform their run alone, while the comparable top experience occurs before the run, likely due to the excitement of participation and social interaction, during street race running. The current work sheds light on the strong impact of the running situation on the acute psychological states associated running.

 

Article visualizations:

Hit counter

DOI

Keywords


affect, exercise, expectation, mood, physical activity

Full Text:

PDF

References


Acevedo, E. O. (2012). Exercise Psychology: Understanding the Mental Health Benefits of Physical Activity and the Public. The Oxford Handbook of Exercise Psychology, 3. Online Publication doi:10.1093/oxfordhb/9780195394313.013.0001

Andrews, F. M., & Withey, S. B. (1976). Social Indicators of Wellbeing. New York, NY: PlenumPress.

Berry, D. S., & Hansen, J. S. (1996). Positive affect, negative affect, and social interaction. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71(4), 796–809. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.71.4.796

Carnes, A. J., & Barkley, J. E. (2015). The effect of peer influence on exercise intensity and enjoyment during outdoor running in collegiate distance runners. Journal of Sport Behavior, 38(3), 257-271.

Dasilva, S.G., Guidetti, L., Buzzachera, C.F., Elsangedy, H.M., Krinski, K., De Campos, W., … Baldari, C. (2011). Psychophysiological Responses to Self-Paced Treadmill and Overground Exercise. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 43(6), 1114–1124. doi:10.1249/mss.0b013e318205874c

Ekkekakis, P. (2009). Let them roam free? Physiological and psychological evidence for the potential of self-selected exercise intensity in public health. Sports Medicine, 39 (10), 857-888. doi:10.2165/11315210-000000000-00000

Ekkekakis, P. & Petruzzello, S. J. (1999). Acute aerobic exercise and affect: Current status, problems and prospects regarding dose-response. Sports Medicine, 28, 337-374.

IBM Corp. (2017). Released 2017. IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 25.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp.

LaCaille, R. A., Masters, K. S., & Heath, E. M. (2004). Effects of cognitive strategy and exercise setting on running performance, perceived exertion, affect, and satisfaction. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 5(4), 461–476. doi:10.1016/s1469-0292(03)00039-6

Lavey, R., Sherman, T., Mueser, K.T., Osborne, D.D., Currier, M. & Wolfe, R., (2005). The effects of yoga on mood in psychiatric inpatients. Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal, 28(4), 399-402. doi:10.2975/28.2005.399.402

Lee, D., Sui, X., Ortega, F.B., Kim, Y.S., Church, T.S. Winett, R.A., et al. (2011). Comparison of leisure-time physical activity on cardiorespiratory fitness as predictors of all-cause mortality in men and women. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 46(6), 504-510. doi:10.1136/bjsm.2009.066209

Li, G., & Yin, J.C. (2008). The effects of shadowboxing on mood and beta-Ep in still condition of female college students. Journal of Beijing Sport University, 31(3), 357.

Lindheimer, J. B., O’Connor, P. J., & Dishman, R. K. (2015). Quantifying the Placebo Effect in Psychological Outcomes of Exercise Training: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Trials. Sports Medicine, 45(5), 693–711. doi:10.1007/s40279-015-0303-1

Miller, K. R., McClave, S. A., Jampolis, M. B., Hurt, R. T., Krueger, K., Landes, S., & Collier, B. (2016). The health benefits of exercise and physical activity. Current Nutrition Reports, 5(3), 204-212. doi:10.1007/s13668-016-0175-5

Minjung, W., Sungwoon, K., Jingu, K., Petruzzello, S.J., & Hatfield, B.O. (2010). The influence of exercise intensity on frontal electroencephalographic asymmetry and self-reported affect. Research Quarterly for Exercise & Sport, 81(3), 349-359. doi: 10.1080/02701367.2010.10599683

Petruzzello, S. J., Snook, E. M., Gliottoni, R. C., & Motl, R. W. (2009). Anxiety and mood changes associated with acute cycling in persons with multiple sclerosis. Anxiety, Stress & Coping, 22(3), 297–307. doi:10.1080/10615800802441245

Reed, J., & Ones, D. S. (2006). The effect of acute aerobic exercise on positive activated affect: A meta-analysis. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 7(5), 477–514. doi:10.1016/j.psychsport.2005.11.003

Rendi, M., Szabo, A., Szabó, T., Velenczei, A., & Kovács, Á. (2008). Acute psychological benefits of aerobic exercise: A field study into the effects of exercise characteristics. Psychology, Health & Medicine, 13(2), 180–184. doi:10.1080/13548500701426729

Rokka, S., Mavridis, G., & Kouli, O. (2010). The impact of exercise intensity on mood state of participants in dance aerobics programs. Physical Culture & Tourism, 17(3), 241-245.

Russell, J. A. (2003). Core affect and the psychological construction of emotion. Psychological Review, 110(1), 145–172. doi:10.1037/0033-295x.110.1.145

Russell, J. A., Weiss, A., & Mendelsohn, G. A. (1989). Affect Grid: A single-item scale of pleasure and arousal. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57(3), 493–502. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.57.3.493

Szabo, A. (2003). Acute psychological benefits of exercise performed at self-selected workloads: Implications for theory and practice. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 2, 77-87.

Szabo, A. (2013). Acute psychological benefits of exercise: Reconsideration of the placebo effect. Journal of Mental Health, 22(5), 449–455. doi:10.3109/09638237.2012.734657

Szabo, A., & Ábrahám, J. (2013). The psychological benefits of recreational running: A field study. Psychology, Health & Medicine, 18(3), 251–261. doi:10.1080/13548506.2012.701755

Szabo, A., Nikházy, L., Tihanyi, B., & Boros, S. (2016). An in-situ investigation of the acute effects of Bikram yoga on positive- and negative affect, and state-anxiety in context of perceived stress. Journal of Mental Health, 26(2), 156–160. doi:10.1080/09638237.2016.1222059

Thompson, E. R. (2007). Development and Validation of an Internationally Reliable Short-Form of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 38(2), 227–242. doi:10.1177/0022022106297301

Valentine, E., & Evans, C. (2001). The effects of solo singing, choral singing and swimming on mood and physiological indices. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 74(1), 115-120. doi: 10.1348/000711201160849

Watson, D., Clark, L. A., & Tellegen, A. (1988). Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: The PANAS scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54(6), 1063–1070. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.54.6.1063

West, J., Otte, C., Geher, K., Johnson, J., & Mohr, D. C. (2004). Effects of hatha yoga and african dance on perceived stress, affect, and salivary cortisol. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 28(2), 114–118. doi:10.1207/s15324796abm2802_6




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.46827/ejpe.v0i0.1568

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2018 Júlia Bősze, Márton Rákóczi, Szilvia Boros, Attila Szabo

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Copyright © 2015-2018. European Journal of Physical Education and Sport Science (ISSN 2501 - 1235) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing Group. All rights reserved.


This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library (Biblioteca Nationala a Romaniei). All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms. All authors who send their manuscripts to this journal and whose articles are published on this journal retain full copyright of their articles. All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).