Cheikh Yaaqoub, Zenagui Sefiane


Background: The present research aims to know how much impact the physical fitness program may have on the VO2 max of blind male students (15-18 years old). The experimental method was used on a sample of 9 blind male students at the Visually Impaired Center, in the town of Tlemcen. These students were chosen randomly. Methods: We applied the one-mile running test to measure the level of respiratory cardio fitness. Results: The results obtained indicated that there are statistically significant differences between the pretests and posttests, in favor of the posttests. Conclusionː It was found that it is highly recommended to pay great attention to level of respiratory cardio fitness of the blind and also to provide specialized professors in the field of motor activity in special centers for the visually impaired.


Article visualizations:

Hit counter



respiratory cardio fitness, blind, motor activity

Full Text:



American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance. (1999). Physical best activity guide elementary level. Chainupaign, IL. Human kinetics.

Aslan, Calik, Kitis. (2012). The effect of gender and level of vision on the physical activity level of children and adolescents with visual impairment. Res Dev disabil. 33: 1794-1804.

Blessing D. L, McCrimmon D, Stovall J, Willi Ford H. V. (1993). The effect of regular exercise programs for visually impaired and sighted school children. Journal of visual impairment & blindness. 87: 50-52.

Buckworth J, Dishman R.K, O’Connor P.J, Tomporowski P.D. (2013). Exercise psychology. 2and Ed. Human kinetics.

Capella, McDonnal M. (2007). The need for health promotion for adults who are visually impaired. Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness. 30:861-867

Carmeli E, Bar-Yossef T, Ariav C, Levy R, Lieberman D. G. (2008). Perceptual motor coordination in persons with mild intellectual disability. Disability and rehabilitation. 30: 232-329.

Caroline M, Elizabeth A.H. (2016). The impact of a school running program on health-related physical fitness and self-efficacy in youth with sensory impairments. PALAESTRA. 30(1), 13-17.

Chao-Chien C, Shih-Yen. (2011). The impact of rope jumping exercise on physical fitness of visually impaired students. Research in developmental disabilities. 32 : 25-29.

Chen, C. C., Lin. S. Y. (2011). The impact of rope jumping exercise on physical fitness of visually impaired students, Research in Developmental Disabilities, 32: 25–29.

Cristiana Carvalho et al. (2015). Antidepressant Efficacy of adjunctive aerobic activity and associated biomarkers in major depression: a 4 week, Randomized single blind, controlled clinical trial. Plos one. 10: 1371.

Dogra S, Stathokostas L. (2012). Sedentary behavior and physical activity are independent predictors of successful aging in middle-aged and older adults. J aging res. Article ID 190654.

Frey G. C, Chow B. (2006). Relationship between BMI, physical fitness and motor skills in youth with mild intellectual disabilities. International journal of obesity. 30: 861-867.

Frey G. C, Stanish H. L, Temple V. A. (2008). Physical activity of youth with intellectual disability. Review and research agenda adapted physical activity quarterly. 25: 95-117.

Gleser J. (1992). Physical and Psychological Benefits of Modified Judo Practice for Blind and Mentally Retarted Children. A Pilot Study In Cultural And Motor skill. 3 Part 1, New York.

Hinkson E. A, Curtis A. (2013). A measuring physical activity in children and youth living with intellectual disabilities. A systematic Review Research in Developmental Disabilities, 34:72-86.

Kosub F, Oh H. (2004). An exploratory study of physical activity levels in children and adolescents with visual impairments. Clinical kinesiology. 58: 1-7.

Larsson L, Frandin K. (2006). Body awareness and dance based training for persons with acquired blindness effects on balance and gait speak. Visual impairment research. 8: 25-40.

Lieberman L. J, Byrne H, Mattern C, O, Watt C. A, Fernandez V. M. (2010). Health-related fitness of youth with visual impairments. Journal of visual impairments & blindness. 104(06).

Lieberman L. J, McHugh E. (2001). Health-related fitness of children who are visually impaired. Journal of visual impairment & blindness. 95, 272-287.

Longmuir P, Bar-Or O. (2000). Factors influencing the physical activity levels of youth with physical and sensory disabilities, Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 17:40-53.

Miszko T. A, Ramsey V. K, Blasch B. B. (2004). Tai chi for people with visual impairments: A pilot study. Journal of visual impairment & blindness. 98: 5-13.

Pascolini D, Mariotti SP. (2012). Global estimates of visual impairment: 2010, J Ophthalmol, 96: 614-618.

Ponchillia P, Armbruster J, Wiebold J. (2008).The national sports education camps project: Introducing sports skills to students with visual impairments through short term specialized instruction. Journal of visual imapairment & blindness. 99: 685-695.

Ponchillia P, Strause B, Ponchillia S. (2002). Athletes with visual impairment: Attributes and sport participation. Journal of visual impairment & blindness. 96(4): 267-272.

Ponchillia S. V, Powell L. L, Felski K. A, Nicklawski M. T. (1992). The effectiveness of aerobic exercise instruction for totally blind women. Journal of visual impairment & blindness. 86: 174-177.

Sharon A. P, Marilu D. M. (2013). Fitnessgram/Activitygram. 4th Ed. Dallas TX: The Cooper institute.

Sit C, McManus A, McKenzie T. L, Lian J. (2007). Physical activity levels of children in special schools. Prev med. 45: 424.

Surakka A, Kivela T. (2008). Motivating visually impaired and deaf blind people to perform regular physical exercise. British journal of visual impairment. 26: 255-268.

Tammelin T. (2003). Adolescent participation in sport and adult physical activity. American journal of preventive medicine. 24(1): 22-28.

US Bureau of the Census World Population Profile. (1998).Washington: VS Dept of Commerce.

Vliet P. V, Rintala P, Frojd K, Verellen J, Houtte SV, Daly D. J et al. (2006). Physical fitness profile of elite athletes with intellectual disability. Scandinavian journal of medicine & science in sports. 16: 417-425.

Williams C. A, Armstrong N, Eves N, Faulkner A. (1996). Peak aerobic fitness of visually impaired and sighted adolescent girls. Journal of visual impairment & blindness. 90: 495-500.

Winnick J. P, Short F. X. (1998). The national fitness test for youth with disabilities. State University of New York. College at Brockport.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2018 Cheikh Yaaqoub, Zenagui Sefiane

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Copyright © 2015-2018. European Journal of Physical Education and Sport Science (ISSN 2501 - 1235) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing Group. All rights reserved.

This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library (Biblioteca Nationala a Romaniei). All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms. All authors who send their manuscripts to this journal and whose articles are published on this journal retain full copyright of their articles. All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).