Joel Manuel Prieto Andreu, Juan González Hernández


The sport can enhance psychological variables in young people, such as commitment or fun, and maybe differently in each sport category. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there are significant differences between competitiveness, social anxiety, engagement, fun and motivational orientation (to the ego and to the task) to the sports category U11(under-11 years old), U14(under-14 years old) and U16(under-16 years old). Total sample of this study, with a quantitative methodology, and a design descriptive and correlational, was N = 205 subjects (90 U11, 34 U14 and 81 U16). Instruments about Competitiveness Scale-10 (C-10), Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents (SASC-R), Perception of Success Questionnaire (POSQ), SCQ-e (The Sport Commitment Model Questionnaire) and Fun Questionnaire Subjects Sports Practice (CDPD) were applicated. The main results highlight that fear of negative evaluation scale is higher in U11, U14 and U16 in first year compared in later years; and opportunities for involvement and enjoyment increase from the first year to the subsequent years in each category, reflecting the importance of learning about experience and continuity in sport practice.


Article visualizations:

Hit counter



social anxiety, football players, sports category, commitment, motivation

Full Text:



Balaguer, I., Castillo, I. & Tomás, I. (1996). Análisis de las propiedades psicométricas del Cuestionario de Orientación al Ego y a la Tarea en el Deporte (TEOSQ) en su traducción al castellano. Psicológica, 17, 71-81

Boixadós, M., Cruz. J., Torregrosa, M., & Valiente, L. (2004). Relationships among motivational climate, satisfaction, perceived ability, and fair play attitudes in young soccer players. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 16 (4), 301-317.

Bois, J. E., Sarrazin, P. G., Brustad, R. J., Trouilloud, D. O., & Curry, F. (2005). Elementary schoolchildren perceived competence and physical activity involvement: the influence of parents’ role modelling behaviours and perceptions of their child’s competence. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 6, 381-397.

Carpenter, P. J., & Coleman, R. (1998). A longitudinal study of elite youth cricketers’commitment. Journal of Sport Psychology, 29, 195-210.

Cruz, J., Boixadós, M., Torregrosa, M. & Mimbrero, J. (1997). ¿Existe un deporte educativo?: Papel de las competiciones deportivas en el proceso de socialización del niño. Revista de Psicología del Deporte, 9(10), 103-109.

Duda, J. L., & Nicholls, J. G. (1992). Dimensions of achievement motivation in schoolwork and sport. Journal of Educational Psychology, 84, 1-10.

Duncan, S. C., Duncan, T. E., Strycker, L. A., & Chaumeton, N. R. (2002). Relations between youth antisocial and prosocial activities. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 25(5), 425-438.

Escartí, A. & Cervelló, E. (1994). La motivación en el deporte. En I. Balaguer (Ed.), Entrenamiento psicológico en deporte: Principios y aplicaciones (pp. 61-90). Valencia: Albatros Educación.

La Greca A.M. & López N. (1998). Social anxiety among adolescents: Linkages with peer relations and friendships. J Abnorm Child Psychol 26, 83-94.

Leary, M. & Kowalsky, R. (1991). Social Anxiety. New York: Guilford publications, Inc.

Le, B., & Agnew, C. R. (2003). Commitment and its theorized determinants: A metaanalysis of the investment model. Personal Relationships, 10, 37-57.

Mattick, R.P. & Peters, L. (1988). Treatment of severe social phobia. Effects of guided exposure with and without cognitive restructuring. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 56, 251-260.

Martens, R. (1976). Competitiveness in sport. Documento presentado en el Congreso Internacional de Ciencias de la Actividad Física, Quebec.

McMillan, J. & Schumacher, S. (2005). Investigación Educativa. Madrid: Pearson.

O`Connor, P., Raglin, J. & Martinsen, E. (2000). Physical Activity, Anxiety and Anxiety Disorders. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 31, 136-155.

Olmedila, A., Andreu, M.D. & Blas, A. (2005). Variables psicológicas, categorías deportivas y lesiones en futbolistas jóvenes: Un estudio correlacional. Análise Psicológica, 23(4), 449-459.

Olivares, J., García-López, L. J., Hidalgo, M. D. & Caballo, V. (2004). Relationships among social anxiety measures and their invariance: a confirmatory factor analysis. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 20, 172-179.

Olivares J., Ruiz, J., Hidalgo M.D., García-López, L.J., Rosa, A.I. & Piqueras, J.A. (2005). Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents (SAS-A): Psychometric properties in a Spanish- speaking population. International Journal of Clinical Health and Psychology, 5, 85-97.

Raedeke, T. D., Warren, A. H., & Granzyk, T. L. (2002). Coaching commitment and turnover: A comparison of current and former coaches. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 73, 73-86.

Remor, E. (2007). Propuesta de un cuestionario breve para la evaluación de la competitividad en el ámbito deportivo: Competitividad-10. Revista de Psicología del Deporte, 16(2), 167-183.

Roberts, G. C. & Balagué, G. (1991) The development and validation of the perception of Success Questionaire. Congreso FEPSAC. Colonia. Alemania.

Rusbult, C. E., Martz, J. M. & Agnew, C. R. (1998). The investment model scale: Measuring commitment level, satisfaction level, quality of alternatives, and investment size. Personal Relationships, 5, 357-391.

Scanlan, T. K., Carpenter, P. J., Schmidt, G. W., Simons, J. P. & Keeler, B. (1993). An introduction to the sport commitment model. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 15, 1-15.

Scanlan, T.K., Simons, J. P., Carpenter, P. J., Schmidt, G. W. & Keeler, B. (1993). The sport commitment model: Measurement development for the youth-sport domain. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology,15, 16-38.

Scanlan, T. K., Babkes, M. L., & Scanlan, L. A. (2005). Participation in sport: A development glimpse at emotion. En J. L. Mahoney, R. W. Larson y J. S. Eccles (Eds.), Organized Activities as contexts of development. Extracurricular Activities, after-school and community programs (pp. 275-309). New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Sousa, C., Torregrosa, M., Viladrich, C., Villamarín, F., Borrás, P. A., Palou, P., & Cruz, J. (2007). Goal orientation and its influence in sport commitment. En Y. Theodorakis, M. Goudas y A. Papaioannou (Eds.), Book of Abstracts of the 12th European Congress of Sport Psychology (pp. 375). Halkidiki: Grecia.

Verma, G. & Mallick, K. (1999). Researching Education. Perspectives and Techniques. London: Falmer Press.

Weinberg, R. S. & Gould, D. (1995). Foundations of Sport & Exercise Psychology (3ª ed.). Chicago, Il: Human Kinetics.

Weiner, B. (1992). Human motivation: Metaphors, theories and research. Newbury Park, Ca.: Sage.

Weiss, M. W., & Weiss, M. R. (2003). Attraction- and entrapment-based commitment among competitive female gymnasts. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 25, 229-247.

Weiss, M. W., & Weiss, M. R. (2007). Sport commitment among competitive female gymnasts: A development perspective. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 78 (1), 90-102.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2018 Joel Manuel Prieto Andreu, Juan González Hernández

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Copyright © 2015-2018. European Journal of Physical Education and Sport Science (ISSN 2501 - 1235) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing Group. All rights reserved.

This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library (Biblioteca Nationala a Romaniei). All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms. All authors who send their manuscripts to this journal and whose articles are published on this journal retain full copyright of their articles. All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).