ELECTROCARDIOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS OF ATHLETES OF MOUNT CAMEROON ASCENT: PREVENTION OF SUDDEN DEATH

Louis-Georges Gassina, Mekoulou Ndongo Jerson, Wiliam Richard Guessogo, Peguy Brice Assomo Ndemba, Ernest Tchoundjin, Elysée Claude Bika Lele, Mama Nourdi Pepouomi, Samuel Honoré Mandengue, Temfemo Abdou

Abstract


Mountain ultra-marathons participants are exposed to multiple internal and external stressors, from exercise and environment that can affect the cardiovascular response such as electrocardiographic profile (ECG). The aim of this study was to determine the electrocardiographic profile of athletes participating on the mount Cameroon race. Fifty-nine athletes and 50 non-athletes (31±7 vs 24±3 years) participated to the study during the 17th edition of Mount Cameroon ascent on February 18, 2012. ECG of 12-leads rest was measured in athletes and non-athletes. Resting heart rate (54±3 vs 71±9 bats/min) was lower (P<0.001) in athletes than non-athletes. P wave duration (108.5±1.8 vs 100.7±1.7 ms), PR interval (170.4±27.2 vs 155.8±22.3 ms), and RR interval (1072.3±188.2 vs 875.6±128.4 ms) were significantly higher (P<0.001) in athletes compared to non-athletes. However, on Rhythm and morphology abnormalities, athletes developed a sinus bradycardia (88.1 vs 8%), sinus arythmia (76.3 vs 22%) and left ventricular hypertrophy (54.2 vs 6%) higher than those of non-athletes (P<0.001). For the abnormalities of ECG conduction, atrioventricular block I (11.9 vs 6%), incomplete Right Bundle Branch Block (5.1 vs 2 %), incomplete Left Branch Block (1.7 vs 0%), Left anterior fascicular block (1.7 vs 0%), T-wave inversion (V1-V6) (10.2 vs 8%), Short PR (3.4 vs 2%), Sus ST Segment shift (5.1 vs 4%) were similar in both groups. But, early repolarization (40.7 vs 16%) was significantly higher (P<0.001) in athletes than non-athletes. Mountain race athletes develop some cardiac ECG electric morpho-functional abnormalities.

 

Article visualizations:

Hit counter

DOI

Keywords


athletes, mountain race, electrocardiogram

Full Text:

PDF

References


Balady GJ, Cadigan JB, Ryan TJ, 1984. Electrocardiogram of the athlete: an analysis of 289 professional football players. American Journal of Cardiology 53:1339-43.

Bazett HC, 1920. An analysis of the time-relations of electrocardiograms. Heart 7: 353-370.

Brezner JA, Fischbach P, Froelicher V, Marek J, Pelliccia A, Prutkin JM, Schmied CM, Sharma S, Wilson MG, Ackerman MG, Anderson J, Ashley E, Asplund CA, Baggish AL, Börjesson M, Cannon BC, Corrado D, DiFiori JP, Harmon KG, Heidbuchel H, Owens DS, Paul S, Salerno JC, Stein R, Vetter VL, 2013. Normal electrocardiographic findings: recognizing physiological adaptations in athletes. British Journal of Sports Medicine 47:125-136.

Carre F, Cignon JC, 2001. Particularités électrocardiographiques de l’athlète : quelles limites? La revue du praticien. 51: 7-14.

Cassirame J, Tordi N, Mourot L, Rakobowchuk M, Regnard, 2007. Using of new beat to beat recorder system for traditional analysis of heart rate variability. Science and Sports 22:238-42.

Corrado D, Basso C, Pavei A, Michieli P, Schiavon M, Thiene G, 2006. Trends in sudden cardiovascular death in young competitive athletes after implementation of a pre-participation screening program. Journal American College of Cardiologie 296 (13):1593-1601.

Corrado D, Basso C, Rizzoli G, Schiavon M, Thiene G, 2003. Does sports activity enhance the risk of sudden death in adolescents and young adults? Journal American College of Cardiologie 42:1959-63.

Corrado D, Biff A, Basso C, et al., 2009. 12-lead ECG in the Athlete: physiological versus pathological abnormalities. British Journal of Sports Medicine 43:669-76.

Corrado D, McKenna WJ, 2007. Appropriate interpretation of the athlete’s electrocardiogram saves lives as well as money. European Heart Journal 28:1920- 2.

Corrado D, Pelliccia A, Bjornstad HH, et al., 2005. Cardiovascular pre-participation screening of young competitive athletes for prevention of sudden death: proposal for a common European protocol. Consensus Statement of the Study Group of Sport Cardiology of the Working Group of Cardiac Rehabilitation and Exercise Physiology and the Working Group of Myocardial and Pericardial Diseases of the European Society of Cardiology. European Heart Journal 26:516- 24.

Drezner JA, Ackerman MJ, Anderson J, et al., 2013a. Electrocardiographic interpretation in Athletes: the 'Seattle criteria'. British Journal Sports Medicine 47:122-4.

Drezner JA, Fischbach P, Froelicher V, Marek J, Pelliccia A, Prutkin JM, et al., 2013b. Normal electrocardiographic findings: recognising physiological adaptations in athletes. British Journal of Sports Medicine 47:125-36.

Drezner JA, Sharma S, Baggish A, Papadakis M et al., 2017. International criteria for electrocardiographic interpretation in athletes. British Journal of Sports Medicine 1:1-28.

Fletcher GF, Balady GJ, Amsterdam EA, Chaitman B, Eckel R, Fleg J, et al., 2001. Exercise standards for testing and training a statement for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association. Circulation 104:1694-740.

Haissaguerre M, Derval N, Sacher F, Jesel L, Deisenhofer I, de Roy L, et al., 2008. Sudden cardiac arrest associated with early repolarization. New England Journal Medicine 358:2016-23.

Heidbuchel H, Panhuyzen-Goedkoop N, Corrado D, et al., 2006. Recommendations for participation in leisure-time physical activity and competitive sports of patients with arrhythmias and potentially arhythmogenic conditions. Part 1: supraventricular arrhythmias and pacemakers. European Journal of Cardiovascular Preventive and Rehabilitation 13:475-84.

Holly RG, Shaffrath JD, Amsterdam EA, 1998. Electrocardiographic alterations associated with the hearts of athletes. Sports Medicine 25:139-48.

Kim JH, Noseworthy PA, McCarty D, et al., 2011. Significance of electrocardiographic right bundle branch block in trained Athletes. American Journal of Cardiology 107:1083-9.

Kligfield P, Gettes LS, Bailey JJ, Childers R, Deal EB, Hancock EW, et al., 2007. Recommendations for the standardization and interpretation of the electrocardiogram: part I: the electrocardiogram and its technology: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association Electrocardiography and Arrhythmias Committee, Council on Clinical Cardiology; the American College of Cardiology Foundation; and the Heart Rhythm Society. Circulation 115:1306- 24.

Liew R, 2011. Electrocardiogram-based predictors of sudden cardiac death in patients with coronary artery disease, Clinical Cardiology 34 (8):466-473.

Marcus FI, 2005. Prevalence of T-wave inversion beyond V1 in young normal individuals and usefulness for the diagnosis of arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy/dysplasia. American Journal of Cardiology 95:1070-1.

Maron BJ, Thompson PD, Ackerman MJ et al., 2007. Recommendations and considerations related to pre-participation screening for cardiovascular abnormalities in competitive athletes: 2007 update. A scientific statement from American Heart Association council on nutrition, physical activity and metabolism. Endorsed by the American College of Cardiology Foundation. Circulation 115:1643-1655

Mekoulou Ndongo J, Assomo Ndemba PB, Temfemo A, Dzudie Tamdja A, Abanda MH, Bika Lele CE, Tchoudjin E, Richard Guessogo W, Gassina LG, Mandengue SH, 2017. Pre and post exercise electrocardiogram pattern modifications in apparently healthy school adolescents in Cameroon. International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health. DOI: 10.1515/ijamh-2017-0071.

Mozos I, Serban C, Mihaescu R, 2012. The relation between arterial blood pressure variables and ventricular repolarization parameters. International Journal of Collaborative Research on Internal Medicine and Public Health 4(6):860-875.

Myerburg RJ, Vetter VL, 2007. Electrocardiograms should be included in pre participation screening of athletes. Circulation 116:2616-26.

Northcote R, Canning GP, Ballantyne D, 1989. Electrocardiographic findings in male

veteran endurance athletes. British Heart Journal 61:155-60.

Noseworthy PA, Tikkanen JT, Porthan K, et al., 2011. The early repolarization pattern in the general population: clinical correlates and heritability. Journal of American College of Cardiology 57:2284-9.

Pelliccia A, Fagard R, Bjørnstad HH, Anastassakis A, Arbustini E, Assanelli D, et al., 2005. Recommendations for competitive sports participation in athletes with cardiovascular disease: a consensus document from the Study Group of Sports Cardiology of the Working Group of Cardiac Rehabilitation and Exercise Physiology and the Working Group of Myocardial and Pericardial Diseases of the European Society of Cardiology. European Heart Journal 26:1422-45.

Pelliccia A, Maron BJ, Culasso F, et al., 2000. Clinical significance of abnormal electrocardiographic patterns in trained athletes. Circulation 102:278-84.

Pellicia A, Di Paolo FM, Corrado D, Buccolieri C, Quattrini FM, Pisicchio C, et al., 2006. Evidence of efficacy of the Italian national pre-participation screening programme for identification of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in competitive athletes. European Heart Journal 27:2196-2200.

Pellicia A, 2007. The pre-participation cardiovascular screening of competitive athletes: is it time to change the customary clinical practice? European Heart Journal, 287: 2703-2705.

Rautaharju PM, Surawicz B, Gettes LS, 2009. AHA/ACC/HRS Recommendations for the standardization and interpretation of the electrocardiogram. Circulation 119:241– 50.

Salah MA, Verla VS, Tonga C, 2012. Anthropometric and Hemodynamic Profiles of Athletes and Their Relevance to Performance in the Mount Cameroon Race of Hope. Asian Journal of Sports Medicine 3 (2): 99-104.

Sharma S, Whyte G, Elliott P, Padula M, Kaushal R, Mahon N, McKenna WJ, 1999. Electrocardiographic changes in 1000 highly trained junior elite athletes. British Journal of Sports Medicine 33:319-324.

Stein R, Medeiros CM, Rosito GA, et al., 2002. Intrinsic sinus and atrioventricular node electrophysiological adaptations in endurance athletes. Journal of American College of Cardiology 39:1033-8.

Surawicz B, Knilans TK, 2008. Chou’s electrocardiography in clinical practice, 6th ed Philadelphia: Saunders Elsevier.

Syransy AE, Ouattara S, Couloubaly I, 2008. Influence du sport sur la repolarisation ventriculaire chez les africains mélanodermes. Cardiologie Tropicale 33:129

Tikkanen JT, Anttonen O, Junttila MJ, Aro AL, Kerola T, Rissanen HA, et al., 2009. Long-term outcome associated with early repolarization on electrocardiography. New England Journal of Medicine 361:2529-37.

Tsafack JPF, Wandji P, Bardintzeff JM, et al., 2009. The Mount Cameroon stratovolcano (Cameroon Volcanic Line, Central Africa): Petrology, geochemistry, isotope and age data. Geochemistry, Mineralogy and Petrology-Sofia 47:65-78.

Vetter VL, Dugan NP, 2013. A discussion of electrocardiographic screening and sudden cardiac death prevention: evidence and consensus. Current Opinion in Cardiology 28:139-51.

Vetter VL, 2015. Best practices for ECG screening in adolescents. Journal of Electrocardiology 48:316-23.

Vetter VL, 2014. Should Electrocardiographic screening of all infants, adolescents, and teenagers be performed? Circulation 130:688-97.

Sheikh N, Papadakis M, Ghani S, Zaidi A, Gati S, Adami PE, et al., 2014. Comparison of electrocardiographic criteria for the detection of cardiac abnormalities in elite black and white athletes. Circulation 129(16):1637-49.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2019 Louis-Georges Gassina, Mekoulou Ndongo Jerson, Wiliam Richard Guessogo, Peguy Brice Assomo Ndemba, Ernest Tchoundjin, Elysée Claude Bika Lele, Mama Nourdi Pepouomi, Samuel Honoré Mandengue, Temfemo Abdou

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Copyright © 2015-2018. European Journal of Physical Education and Sport Science (ISSN 2501 - 1235) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing Group. All rights reserved.


This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library (Biblioteca Nationala a Romaniei). All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms. All authors who send their manuscripts to this journal and whose articles are published on this journal retain full copyright of their articles. All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).