Mohammad Tanweer


This paper is an attempt to summarize the researches on spatial ability in order to understand the viewpoints of different psychological approaches viz psychometric approach, developmental approach, differential approach and information processing approach and their contributions to the knowledge of spatial ability.


Article visualizations:

Hit counter



individual skills, spatial abilities, literature review

Full Text:



Alderton, D. L. (1989, March). The fleeting nature of sex differences in spatial ability. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, San Francisco, CA.

Allen, M. J. (1974). Sex differences in spatial problem-solving styles. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 39, 843-846.

Anglin, G., Towers, R., & Moore, K. (1997). The effect of dynamic and static visuals on the recall and comprehension of information using computer- based instruction. Journal of Visual Literacy, 17(2), 25-37.

Battista, M. T. (1990). Spatial visualization and gender differences in high school geometry. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 21(1), 47-60.

Belz, H. F., & Geary, D. C. (1984). Father’s occupation and social background: Relation to SAT scores. American Educational Research Journal, 21(2), 473-478.

Berry, J. W. (1971). Ecological and cultural factors in spatial perceptual development. Canadian Journal of Behavioral Science, 3(4), 324-336.

Bishop, J. E. (1978). Developing students’ spatial ability. Science Teacher, 45(8), 20-23.

Bock, R. D., & Kolakowski, D. (1973). Further evidence of sex-linked major-gene influence on human spatial visualization ability. American Journal of Human Genetics, 24, 1-14.

Bock, R. D., & Vandenberg, S. G. (1968). Components of heritable variation in mental test scores. In S. G. Vandenberg (Ed.), Progress in human behavior genetics: Recent reports on genetic syndromes, twin studies, and statistical advances (pp. 233-260). Baltimore: John Hopkins Press.

Bodner, G. M. & McMillan, T. L. B. (1986). Cognitive restructuring as an early stage in problem solving. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 23, 727-737.

Boles, D. B. (1980). X-linkage of spatial ability: A critical review. Child Development, 51, 625-635.

Brinkmann, E.H. (1966). Programmed instruction as a technique for improving spatial visualization. Journal of Applied Psychology, 50 (2), 179-184.

Brosnan, M. J. (1998). Spatial ability in children's play with Lego blocks. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 87, 19-28.

Brownlow, S. (2001). How gender and college chemistry experience influence mental rotation ability. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Southeastern Psychological Association, Atlanta, GA.

Burnett, S. A., & Lane, D. M. (1980). Effects of academic instruction on spatial visualization. Intelligence, 4, 233-242.

Burnett, S. A., & Lane, D. M. (1980). Effects of academic instruction on spatial visualization. Intelligence, 4, 233-242.

Burnett, S. A., Lane, D. M., & Dratt, L. M. (1979). Spatial visualization and sex differences in quantitative ability. Intelligence, 3, 345-354.

Burton, L. J., & Fogarty, G. J. (2002). The factor structure of visual imagery and spatial abilities. Intelligence, 31, 289-318.

Caplan, P. J., MacPherson, G. M., & Tobin, P. (1985). Do sex-related differences in spatial abilities exist? A multilevel critique with new data. American Psychologist, 40, 786-799.

Caplan, P. J., MacPherson, G. M., & Tobin, P. (1986). The magnified molehill and the misplaced focus: Sex-related differences in spatial ability revisited. American Psychologist, 41, 1016-1018.

Carpenter, P. A., & Just, M. A. (1986). Spatial ability: An information processing approach to psychometrics. In R. J. Sternberg (Ed.), Advances in the psychology of human intelligence (Vol. 3, pp. 221-253). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Carroll, J. (1993) Human cognitive abilities: A survey of factor-analytic studies. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Casey, M. B., Nuttall, R. L., & Pezaris, E. (1999). Evidence in support of a model that predicts how biological and environmental factors interact to influence spatial skills. Developmental Psychology, 35(5), 1237-1247.

Clements, D. H., & Battista, M. T. (1992). Geometry and spatial reasoning. In D. Grouws (Ed.), Handbook of research on mathematics teaching and learning (pp. 420-464). New York: Simon and Schuster Macmillan.

Clements, D. H., Battista, M. T., Sarama J., & Swaminathan, S. (1997). Development of students’ spatial thinking in a unit on geometric motions and area. The Elementary School Journal, 98(2), 171-186.

Coleman, S. L., & Gotch, A. J. (1998). Spatial Perception Skills of Chemistry Students. Journal of Chemical Education, 75(2), 206-209.

Conner, J. M., & Serbin, L. A. (1985). Visual-spatial skill: Is it important for mathematics? Can it be taught? In S. F. Chipman, L. R. Brush, & D. M. Wilson (Eds.), Women and mathematics: Balancing the equation (pp. 151- 174). New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Conner, J. M., Serbin, L. A., & Schackman, M. (1977). Sex differences in children’s response to training on a visual-spatial test. Développemental Psychology, 13(3), 293-294.

Contreras, M. J., Colom, R. Hernandez, J. M., & Santacreu, J. (2003). Is static spatial performance distinguishable from dynamic spatial performance? A latent-variable analysis. The Journal of General Psychology, 130, 277-288.

Cooper, L. A. (1980). Spatial information processing: Strategies for research. In R. Snow, P. A. Federico, & W. E. Montague (Eds.), Aptitudes, learning, and instruction: Cognitive process analysis (pp. 149-176). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Cooper, L. A., & Mumaw, R. J. (1985). Spatial aptitude. In R. F. Dillon (Ed.), Individual differences in cognition (Vol. 2, pp. 67-94). New York: Academic Press.

D’Oliveira, T. C. (2004). Dynamic spatial ability: An exploratory analysis and a confirmatory study. The International Journal of Aviation Psychology, 14(1), 19-38.

Dodwell, P. C. (1963). Children’s understanding of spatial concepts. Canadian Journal of Psychology, 17(1), 141-161.

Eals, M., & Silverman, I. (1994). The hunter-gatherer theory of sex differences: Proximate factors mediating the female advantage in recall of object arrays. Ethology and Sociobiology, 15, 95-105.

El Koussy, A. A. H. (1935). The visual perception of space. British Journal of Psychology, 20, 1-80.

Fennema, E., & Sherman, J. A. (1977). Sex-related differences in mathematics achievement, spatial visualization and affective factors. American Educational Research Journal, 14(1), 51-71.

Flanery, R. C., & Balling, J. D. (1979). Developmental changes in hemispheric specialization for tactile spatial ability. Developmental Psychology, 15(4), 364-372.

Fruchter, B. (1954). Measurement of spatial abilities. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 14, 387-400.

Gages, T. T. (1994). The interrelationship among spatial ability, strategy used, and learning style for visualization problems. (Doctoral Dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1994). Dissertation Abstracts International, 55(11), 3399.

Galton, F. (1880). Statistics of mental imagery. Mind, 5, 300-318.

Galton, F. (1911). Inquiries into human faculty and its development. London: J.M. Dent & Sons.

Gardener, H. (1983). Frames of mind. The Theory of Multiple Intelligence.

Gardner, H. (1984). Frames of mind. New York: Basic Books.

Gardner, H. (1993). Multiple intelligences: The theory in practice. New York: Basic Books.

Gardner, R. W., Jackson, D. N., & Messick, S. J. (1960). Personality organization in cognitive controls and intellectual abilities (Monograph 8). Psychological Issues, 2(4).

Geiringer, E. R., & Hyde, J. S. (1976). Sex differences on Piaget’s water-level task: Spatial ability incognito. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 42, 1323-1328.

Glasmer, F. D., & Turner, R. W. (1995). Youth sport participation and associated sex differences on a measure of spatial ability. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 81, 1099-1105.

Guilford, J. P. (1959). Three faces of intellect. American Psychologist, 14, 469- 479.

Guilford, J. P. (1967). The nature of human intelligence. New York: McGraw-Hill. Guilford, J. P. & Lacy, J. I. (1947). Printed classification tests. A.A.F. Aviation

Guilford, J. P., & Zimmerman, W. S. (1947a). Some A.A.F. findings concerning aptitude factors. Occupations, 26, 154-159.

Guilford, J. P., & Zimmerman, W. S. (1947b). The Guilford-Zimmerman aptitude survey – spatial orientation. Beverly Hills, CA: Sheridan Supply Company.

Gustafsson, J. (1988). Hierarchical models of individual differences in cognitive abilities. In R. J. Sternberg (Ed.), Advances in psychology of human intelligence (Vol. 4, pp. 35-71). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Guttman, L. (1954). A new approach to factor analysis: The radex. In P. F. Lazarsfeld (Ed.), Mathematical thinking in the social sciences (pp. 258- 348). Glencoe, IL: The Free Press.

Harris, L. J. (1978). Sex differences in spatial ability: Possible environmental, genetic, and neurological factors. In M. Kinsbourne (Ed.), Asymmetrical function of the brain (pp. 405-521). London: Cambridge University.

Harris, L. J. (1979). Sex-related differences in spatial ability: A developmental psychological view. In C. B. Kopp & M. Kilpatrick (Eds.), Becoming female: Perspectives on development (pp. 133-181). New York: Plenum Press.

Heitland, L. (2000a). Learning to make music enhances spatial reasoning. Journal of Aesthetic Education, 34(3-4), 179-237.

Heitland, L. (2000b). Listening to music enhances spatial-temporal reasoning: Eviden for the “Mozart Effect.” Journal of Aesthetic Education, 34(3-4), 105-148.

Hill, D. M., & Obenauf, P. A. (1979). Spatial visualization, problem solving, and cognitive development in freshman teacher education students. Science Education, 63(5), 665-670.

Hiscock, M., Israelian, M., Inch, R., Jacek, C., & Hiscock-Kalil, C. (1995). Is there a sex difference in human laterality? II. An exhaustive survey of visual laterality studies from six neuropsychology journals. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 17(4), 590-610.

Humphreys, L. G., Lubinski, D., & Yao, G. (1993). Utility of predicting group membership and the role of spatial visualization in becoming an engineer, physical scientist, or artist. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78(2), 250-261.

Imperato-McGinley, J., Gautier, R., Voyer, D., & Bryden, M. P. (1991). Cognitive abilities in androgen insensitive subjects—Comparison with control males and females from the same kindred. Clinical Endocrinology, 34, 341-347.

Jagacinski, C. M., & Lebold, W. K. (1981). A comparison of men and women undergraduate and professional engineers. Engineering Education, 72, 213-220.

Johnson, E. S., & Meade, A. C. (1987). Developmental patterns of spatial ability: An early sex difference. Child Development, 58, 725-740.

Kelley, T. L. (1928). Crossroads in the mind of man. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

Kimura, D. (1996). Sex, sexual orientation and sex hormones influence human cognitive function. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 6(2), 259-263.

Kyllonen, P. C. (1981). Models of strategy and strategy-shifting in spatial visualization performance (Technical Report No. 17). Stanford University: California School of Education.

Kyllonen, P. C., Lohman, D. F., & Snow, R. E. (1984). Effects of aptitudes, strategy training, and task facets on spatial task performance. Journal of Psychology, 76(1), 130-145. doi: 10.1037/0022-0663.76.1.130

Kyllonen, P. C., Woltz, D. J., & Lohman, D. F (1981). Models of strategy and strategy-shifting in spatial visualization performance (Technical Report No. 17). Arlington, VA: Advanced Research Projects Agency.

Kyllonen, P. C., Lohman, D. F., & Woltz, D. (1984). Componential Modeling of Alternative Strategies for Performing Spatial Tasks. Journal of Educational Psychology, 76(6), 1325-1345.

Landau, M. S. (1984). The effects of spatial ability and problem presentation format on mathematical problem solving performance of middle school students. (Doctoral Dissertation, Northwestern University, 1984). Dissertation Abstracts International, 45(2), 442.

Lawton, C. A. (1994). Gender differences in way-finding strategies: Relationship to spatial ability and spatial anxiety. Sex Roles, 30, 765-779.

Linn, M. C., & Petersen, A. C. (1986). A meta-analysis of gender differences in spatial ability: Implications for mathematics and science achievement. In J. S. Hyde & M. C. Linn (Eds.), The psychology of gender: Advances through meta-analysis (pp. 67-101). Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Lohman, D. F. (1979a). Spatial ability: A review and re-analysis of the correlational literature (Technical Report No. 8). Stanford, CA: Aptitudes Research Project, School of Education, Stanford University.

Lohman, D. F. (1979b). Spatial ability: Individual differences in speed and level (Technical Report No. 9). Stanford, CA: Aptitudes Research Project, School of Education, Stanford University.

Lohman, D. F., & Kyllonen, P. C. (1983). Individual differences in solution strategy on spatial tasks. In R. F. Dillon & R. R. Schmeck (Eds.), Individual differences in cognition (Vol. 1, pp. 105-135). New York: Academic Press.

Lord, T. R., & Garrison, J. (1998). Comparing spatial abilities of collegiate athletes in different sports. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 86, 1016-1018.

Lowery, B. R., & Knirk, F. G. (1982-83) Micro-computer video games and spatial visualization acquisition. Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 11(2), 155-166.

Maccoby, E. E., & Jacklin, C. N. (1974). The psychology of sex differences. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

Macnab, W., & Johnstone, A. H. (1990). Spatial skills which contribute to competence in the biological sciences. Journal of Biological Education, 24(1), 37-41.

Mann, V. A., Sasanuma, S., Sakuma, S., & Masaki, S. (1990). Sex differences in cognitive abilities: A cross-cultural perspective. Neuropsychologia, 28(10), 1063-1077.

Mason, S. F. (1986). Relationships among mathematical, musical, and spatial abilities. (Doctoral Dissertation, University of Georgia, 1986). Dissertation Abstracts International, 47(4), 1229.

McCuistion, P. (1989). Static vs. dynamic visuals in computer assisted instruction. (Doctoral Dissertation, Texas A&M University, 1989). Dissertation Abstracts International, 51(1), 144.

McCuistion, P. (1990). Static vs. dynamic visuals in computer assisted instruction. Proceedings of the American Society for Engineering Education Annual Conference and Exposition, 143-147.

McGee, M. G. (1976). Laterality, hand preference, and human spatial ability. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 42, 781-782.

McGee, M. G. (1979a). Human spatial abilities: Psychometric studies and environmental, genetic, hormonal, and neurological influences. Psychological Bulletin, 86(5), 889-918.

McGee, M. G. (1979b). Human spatial abilities: Sources of sex differences. New York: Praeger Publishers.

McGlone, J. (1980). Sex differences in human brain asymmetry: A critical survey. The Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 3, 215-227.

McKee, L. D. (1983). Figure-drawing ability in solving mathematical problems. (Doctoral Dissertation, University of Georgia, 1983). Dissertation Abstracts International, 44(2), 417.

Metzler, J. (1973). Chronometric studies of cognitive analogues of the rotation of three-dimensional objects. (Doctoral Dissertation, Stanford University, 1973). Dissertation Abstracts International, 34(6), 2973.

Michaelides, M. P. (2002, April). Students’ solution strategies in spatial rotation tasks. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New Orleans, LA.

Michaelides, M. P. (2003, April). Age and gender differences in performance on a spatial rotation test. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Chicago, IL.

Moffat, S. D., & Hampson, E. (1996). A curvilinear relationship between testosterone and spatial cognition in humans: Possible influence of hand preference. Psycho-neuro-endocrinology, 21(3), 323-337.

Moody, M. S. (1998). Problem-solving strategies used on the Mental Rotations Test: Their relationship to test instructions, scores, handedness, and college major. Dissertation Abstracts International, 59(5), 2464.

Moses, B. E. (1977). The nature of spatial ability and its relationship to mathematical problem solving. (Doctoral Dissertation, Indiana University, 1977). Dissertation Abstracts International, 38(8), 4640.

Nash, S. C. (1975). The relationship among sex-role stereotyping, sex-role preference, and the sex difference in spatial visualization. Sex Roles, 1(1), 15-32.

Newcombe, N., Bandura, M. M., & Taylor, D. G. (1983). Sex differences in spatial ability and spatial activities. Sex Roles, 9(3), 377-386.

Nyborg, H. (1983). Spatial ability in men and women: Review and new theory. Advances in Behaviour Research and Therapy, 5(2), 89-140.

Olson, D. R. (1975). On the relations between spatial and linguistic processes. In J. Eliot & N. J. Salkind (Eds.), Children's spatial development (pp. 67-110). Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.

Orde, B. J. (1996). A correlational analysis of drawing ability and spatial ability. Dissertation Abstracts International, 57(5), 1943.

Pak, R. (2001, October). A further examination of the influence of spatial abilities on computer task performance in younger and older adults (pp. 1551- 1555). Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 45th Annual Meeting, Minneapolis, MN.

Pearson, J. L., & Ferguson, L. R. (1989). Gender differences in patterns of spatial ability, environmental cognition, and math and English achievement in late adolescence. Adolescence, 24(94), 421-431.

Pellegrino, J. W., & Hunt, E. B. (1989). Computer-controlled assessment of static and dynamic spatial reasoning. In R. F. Dillon & J. W. Pellegrino (Eds.), Testing: Theoretical and applied perspectives (pp. 174-198). New York: Praeger.

Pellegrino, J. W., & Hunt, E. B. (1991). Cognitive models for understanding and assessing spatial abilities. In H. A. H. Rowe (Ed.), Intelligence: Reconceptualization and measurement (pp. 203-225). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.

Pellegrino, J., Alderton, D., & Shute, V. (1984). Understanding spatial ability. Educational Psychologist, 19(3), 239-253.

Piaget, J., & Inhelder, B. (1967). Child’s conception of space (F. W. Langdon & J. L Lunzer, Trans.). New York: Norton.

Piaget, J., & Inhelder, B. (1971). Mental Imagery in the child. New York: Basic Books, Inc.

Poltrock, S. E., & Agnoli, F. (1986). Are spatial visualization ability and visual imagery ability equivalent? In R. J. Sternberg (Ed.), Advances in the psychology of human intelligence (Vol. 3, pp. 255-296). New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Poltrock, S. E., & Brown, P. (1984). Individual differences in visual imagery and spatial ability. Intelligence, 8, 93-138.

Rilea, S. L., Roskos-Ewoldsen, B., & Boles, D. (2004). Sex differences in spatial ability: A lateralization of function approach. Brain and Cognition, 56, 332- 343.

Robichaux, R. R. (2000). The spatial visualization of undergraduates majoring in particular fields of study and the relationship of this ability to individual background characteristics. (Doctoral Dissertation, Auburn University, 2000). Dissertation Abstracts International, 61(1), 119.

Robichaux, R. R., & Guarino, A. J. (2000, November). Predictors of visualization: A structural equation model. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Mid-South Educational Research Association, Bowling Green, KY.

Saccuzzo, D. P., Craig, S., Johnson, N. E., & Larson, G. E. (1996). Gender differences in dynamic spatial abilities. Personality and Individual Differences, 21(4), 599-607.

Salthouse, T. A., & Mitchell, D. R. D. (1990). Effects of age and naturally occurring experience on spatial visualization performance. Developmental Psychology, 26(5), 845-854.

Salthouse, T. A., Babcock, R. L., Mitchell, D. R. D., Palmon, R., & Skovronek, E. (1990). Sources of individual differences in spatial visualization ability. Intelligence, 14,187-230. doi:10.1016/0160-2896(90)90004-D

Shepard, R. N. (1978). The circumplex and related topological manifolds in the study of perception. In S. Shye (Ed.), Theory construction and data analysis in behaviorial sciences (pp. 29-80). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Sherman, J. A. (1967). Problem of sex differences in space perception and aspects of intellectual functioning. Psychological Review, 74(4), 290-299.

Sherman, J. A. (1974). Field articulation, sex, spatial visualization, dependency, practice, laterality of the brain and birth order. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 38, 1223-1235.

Silverman, I., & Eals, M. (1992). Sex differences in spatial abilities: Evolutionary theory and data. In J. Barkow, L. Cosmides, & J. Tooby (Eds.), The adapted mind: Evolutionary psychology and the generation of culture (pp. 487-503). New York: Oxford University Press.

Silverman, I., Choi, J., & Peters, M. (2007). The hunter-gatherer theory of sex differences in spatial abilities: Data from 40 countries. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 36(2), 261-268. doi: 10.1007/s10508-006-9168-6

Smith, I. M. (1964). Spatial ability, its educational and social significance. San Diego, CA: Robert R. Knapp.

Smith, W. S., & Litman, C. I. (1979). Early adolescent girls’ and boys’ learning of a spatial visualization skill. Science Education, 63(5), 671-676.

Smith, W. S., & Schroeder, C. K. (1979). Instruction of fourth grade girls and boys on spatial visualization. Science Education, 63(1), 61-66.

Stumpf, H., & Klieme, E. (1989). Sex-related differences in spatial ability: More evidence for convergence. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 69, 915-921.

Thorndike, E. L. (1921). On the organization of the intellect. Psychological Review, 28, 141-151.

Thurstone, L. L. (1938). Primary mental abilities. Psychometric Monographs, No. 1.

Thurstone, L. L. (1944). A factorial study of perception. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Thurstone, L. L. (1950). Some primary abilities in visual thinking. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Psychometric Lab Report No. 59.

Tracy, D. M. (1990). Toy-playing behavior, sex-role orientation, spatial ability, and science achievement. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 27(7), 637-649.

Vandenberg, S. G. (1971). The Mental Rotations Test. Boulder: University of Colorado.

Vandenberg, S. G. (1975). Sources of variance in performance on spatial tests. In J. Eliot & N. J. Salkind (Eds.), Children’s spatial development (pp. 57- 66). Springfield, MA: Thomas.

Vandenberg, S. G., & Kruse, A. R. (1978). Mental Rotations, a Group Test of Three-Dimensional Spatial Visualization. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 47, 599-604.

Vandenberg, S. G., & Kuse, A. R. (1978). Mental rotations, a group test of three-dimensional spatial visualization. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 47, 599-604.

Vandenberg, S. G., & Kuse, A. R. (1979). Spatial ability: A critical review of the sex-linked major gene hypothesis. In M. A. Wittig & A. C. Petersen (Eds.), Sex-related differences in cognitive functioning (pp. 67-95). New York: Academic Press.

Vandenberg, S. G., Stafford, R. E., & Brown, A. M. (1968). The Louisville twin study. In S. G. Vandenberg (Ed.), Progress in human behavior genetics: Recent reports on genetic syndromes, twin studies, and statistical advances (pp. 153-204). Baltimore: John Hopkins Press.

Vederhus, L., & Krekling, S. (1996). Sex differences in visual spatial ability in 9- year-old children. Intelligence, 23, 33-43.

Walker, J. T., Krasnoff, A. G., & Peaco, D. (1981). Visual spatial perception in adolescents and their parents: The X-linked recessive hypothesis. Behavior Genetics, 11(4), 403-413.

Wheatley, G. H., Brown, D. L., & Solano, A. (1994). Long term relationship between spatial ability and mathematical knowledge. Paper presented at the 16th Annual Meeting of the Psychology of Mathematics Education.

Witkin, H. A. (1949). The nature and importance of individual differences in perception. Journal of Personality, 18, 145-170.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2019 Mohammad Tanweer

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Copyright © 2015-2018. European Journal of Physical Education and Sport Science (ISSN 2501 - 1235) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing Group. All rights reserved.

This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library (Biblioteca Nationala a Romaniei). All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms. All authors who send their manuscripts to this journal and whose articles are published on this journal retain full copyright of their articles. All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).