EXPLORING COLLEGIATE GYMNASTICS ATHLETES’ PARTICIPATION MOTIVATIONS AND HEALTH-RELATED BEHAVIORS

Howard Z. Zeng, Xiong Mina

Abstract


Utilizing ‘self-determination-theory’ as a theoretical framework, this study examined: features of collegiate gymnastics athletes’ (CGAs) participation motivations, their current health-related behaviors; and those dependent variables relate to their participation motivations. Participants were 163 CGAs (97 Female, 66 Male). The Adapt Questionnaire of Collegiate Gymnastics Athletes’ Motivation and Health-related Behaviors (QCGAMHRB) was employed for data collection. The QCGAMHRB containing 54 items (eight invested general information, 19 examined motivation factors (MFs) and 27 examined health-related behaviors). Data analyses were done by descriptive statistics, reliability analysis and a 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 3 (Gender, female/male) x (Disciplines, natural-science/social-science) x (Financing support, by-parents/by-school) x (Years in college, 1 & 2 years/3 & 4 years) x (Athlete-grades, Elite-Grade/Major-Grade/Participate-Grade) factorial MANOVA. Key findings included: Top four MFs were: MF1 ‘Technical content and unique value’, MF8 ‘Shape body’, MF17 ‘Develop a unique sport skill’, and MF13 ‘Establish prestige’. The MANOVA revealed: ‘Years in college’, and ‘Athlete-grades’ are not the determination aspects, but ‘Gender’ and ‘Disciplines’ are. Female CGAs possess higher participation-motivations than that of male CGAs. Who are major in ‘Social-science’ possess higher participation-motivations than those who are major in ‘Natural-science’. As to the health-related behaviors, the mean score of the participants’ health-related behaviors for all 27 items was 2.73, therefore, their current healthy-related behavior status is between ‘Very-good’ [3] and ‘Good’ [2] using a four points assessment scale. Results of the present investigation added a set of new data and information regarding the essential MFs in their gymnastics practices and competitions; many precious features about these CGAs’ health-related behaviors are also added. These findings provided lively examples and meaningful evidence for the coaches, teachers, and administers who want to reform their gymnastics programs.

 

Article visualizations:

Hit counter

DOI

Keywords


disciplines; gender; financing-support; years in college; athlete-grade

Full Text:

PDF

References


Breese H. P., 1998. Participation motivation in ITFNZ Taekwon-Do: A study of the central districts region. Massey University, NZ.

Brustad R. J., 1992. Integrating Socialization Influences Into the Study of Children's Motivation in Sport. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology. 14: 59-77.

Child D, 1990. The essentials of factor analysis, second edition. London: Cassel Educational Limited.

Cox R. H., 2011. Sport psychology: Concepts and application. Brown & Benchmark, Dubuque.

Diehl K., Thiel A., Zipfel S., Mayer I., Litaker D. G., Sven Schneider S. 2012. How Healthy is the Behavior of Young Athletes? A Systematic Literature Review and Meta-Analyses. Journal of Sports Science Medicine. 1: 201–220.

Deci E. L., Ryan R. M., 1985. Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behaviors. New York: Pleum.

FUSC (Federation of University Sport of China, 2018). China Culture. Retrieved from http://vod.sxrtvu.edu/englishonline/culture/chinaculture/chinaculture/en_chinaway/2003-09/24/content_31809.htm

Geidne S., Quennerstedt M., Eriksson C., 2013. The youth sports club as a health-promoting setting: An integrative review of research. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health. 41: 269–283. doi: 10.1177/140349 4812473204.

Hansen D., Larson R., Dworkin J., 2003. What adolescents learn in organized youth activities: A survey of self-reported developmental experiences. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 13: 25-56.

Harter S, 1981. A new self-report scale of intrinsic versus extrinsic orientation in the classroom: Motivational and informational components. Developmental Psychology, 17: 300-312. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.17.3.300

IUSF (International University Sport Federation). 2018. Retrieved from https://www.fisu.net 2018.

Jeffery Deal, C., Camiré M., 2016. An Examination of University Student-Athletes’ Motivations to Contribute, Journal of College and Character, 17: 116-129. Doi: 10.1080/2194587X.2016.1159227

Kaplan A., 2010. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation: Retrieved from May 15, 2017 http://www.education.com/reference/article/intrinsic-and-extrinsic-motivation/#.

Kilpatrick M., Hebert E., Bartholomew J., 2010. College Students' Motivation for Physical Activity: Differentiating Men's and Women's Motives for Sport Participation and Exercise, Journal of American College Health, Published online: 07 Aug 2010. DOI: 10.3200/JACH. 54.2.87-94

Lippitt E., 2012. Motivation, Need Support and Need Satisfaction in Youth Soccer Players. Retrieved from https://digitalcommons.georgiasouthern.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2046&context=etd. Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, Georgia.

Lyons L., 2017. Eating Disorders in Young Athletes. Retrieved from https://www.eatingdisorderhope.com/blog/eating-disorders-young-athletes.

Mageau G. A., Vallerand R. J., 2003. The coach–athlete relationship: a motivational model, Journal of Sports Sciences, 21: 883-904, doi: 10.1080/0264041031000140374

Malina R. M., Cumming S. P., 2003. Current status and issues in youth sports. In R.M. Malina & M.A. Clark (Eds.), Youth sports: Perspectives for a new century. (Pp. 7-25). Monterey, CA: Coaches Choice.

NCAA 2018. Retrieved from http://www.ncaa.org/about/resources/media-center/ncaa-101/what-ncaa2018

Pintrich P. R., Schunk D., 2002. Motivation in education: Theory, research and applications (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Ryan R. M., Connell, J. P., 1989. Perceived locus of causality and internalization: Examining reasons for acting in two domains. Journal of personality and Social Psychology, 57: 749-761.

Ryan R. M., Deci E. L., 2000. Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well being. American Psychologist, 55: 68–78.

Ryan R. M., Frederick C. M., Lepes D., Rubio D., Sheldon K. S., 1997. Intrinsic motivation and exercise adherence. International Journal of Sports Psychology, 28: 355-354.

Stellion M. B., Sinclair, C. D., 2013. Psychological predictors of children’s recess physical activity motivation and behavior. Journal of Research Quarterly for Excise and Sport, 84: 167-176.

Stipek D. J., 1996. Motivation and Instruction. In D. C. Berliner and R. C. Calfee (Eds.), Handbook of educational psychology (pp. 85–113). New York: Macmillan.

Thompson R., 2018. Mind, Body and Sport: Eating disorders. Retrieved from http://www.ncaa.org/sport-science-institute/mind-body-and-sport-eating-disorders

United States at the Universiade, 2018. Retrieved from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_ States_at_the_Universiade

Weiss M. R., Smith A. L., 2002. Moral Development in sport and physical activity: Theory, research, and intervention. In Horn, T. (ed.). Advances in sport psychology (2 edition). Champign, IL: Human Kinetics, pp. 243-280.

Zeng, H. Z., 2019). A Study of Youth Martial Arts Athletes’ Engagement Motivations and Their Health Related Behaviors. Ido Movement For Culture. Journal Of Martial Arts Anthropology, 19: 20-33. doi: 10.14589/ido.19.1.2.

Zeng Z. H., Cynarski, W. J., Baatz S., Shawn P. J., 2015. A study of taekwondo students’ motivation from New York. World Journal of Education; 5: 51-63, doi:10.5430/wje.v5n5p51.

Zeng Z. H., Meng, W. Y., Sun, P., Xie, L. S., 2019. A Study of Youth Soccer Players' Participation Motivation and Health Related Elements. The Physical Educator, 76: 327-355.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2019 Howard Z. Zeng, Xiong Mina

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Copyright © 2015-2018. European Journal of Physical Education and Sport Science (ISSN 2501 - 1235) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing Group. All rights reserved.


This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library (Biblioteca Nationala a Romaniei). All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms. All authors who send their manuscripts to this journal and whose articles are published on this journal retain full copyright of their articles. All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).