SPORT AS A MEANS OF INCLUSION AND INTEGRATION FOR "THOSE OF US WITH DISABILITIES"

Irene Kamberidou, Alexandros Bonias, Nikolaos Patsantaras

Abstract


Can sport provide a platform for disability awareness as regards both social and biological dimensions? How can sport serve as a tool or means of social inclusion for persons or athletes with disabilities? To address these questions our qualitative study begins with a review of current research on the social dimensions of disability, namely diverse forms of social exclusion experienced by "those of us with disabilities" (McCall, 2016), such as attitudinal, institutional and environmental barriers, subsequently followed by a case study in Greece. Initially, we discuss today’s shift to inclusion—which advocates a more inclusive and people-first perspective as well as a more empowering language—and distinguish between two concepts/approaches, integration and inclusion, mainly through educational schemes, so as to facilitate the analysis that follows on sport’s role in eliminating social and institutional barriers and promoting inclusion. Inclusive education is a central objective of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD), and other UN and UNESCO initiatives. In this context researchers have been examining sport and physical education as tools, instruments or means of social inclusion and/or integration. Accordingly, to determine whether—and to what extent—sport participation contributes to the inclusion and integration of people with physical disabilities, interviews were conducted with 20 athletes in Athens: semi-structured interviews with 14 male and 6 female Paralympic and World Champions. The findings confirm that both genders confront many forms of social exclusion (attitudinal, environmental and institutional), however their sport participation plays a significant and positive role in their lives. All 20 acknowledge or report sport gives them a social identity, a sport identity and a meaning in life, in addition to contributing to their social integration/inclusion. Conclusions: The lack of disability awareness, information and knowledge accounts for many of the barriers. Recognizing both the social and biological dimensions of disability is important. The disability community needs visibility, i.e. coverage in mainstream media to cultivate inclusion, promote and reproduce role models and mentors, along with a wider disability awareness campaign, in which sport could play a vital role in changing stereotypes and attitudes, in addition to eliminating the supercrip identity.

 

Article visualizations:

Hit counter

DOI

Keywords


integration, inclusion, inclusive education, physical disability, supercrip identity, sport identity, social exclusion, person-first terminology, mainstream media

Full Text:

PDF

References


Anastasiou, D. & Kaufmann, J. M. (2013). The social model of disability: Dichotomy between impairment and disability. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy, 38: 441–459, doi:10.1093/jmp/jht026

Asonitou, K., Koutsouki, D. & Charitou, S. (2010). Motor skills and cognitive abilities as a precursor of academic performance in children with and without DDCD. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 33, 996- 1005.

Bonias, A. (2019). Social exclusion and social pain: Sport as a means of social inclusion for athletes with physical disabilities. Master’s dissertation (defense presentation June 28, 2019) of the School of Physical Education and Sport Science, Sport Sociology, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens (to be uploaded in Pergamos Digital Library of the University of Athens (UoA) https://pergamos.lib.uoa.gr/uoa/dl/frontend/en/index.html [in Greek]

Borooah, Vani & Mangan, John (2009). Multiculturalism versus assimilation: Attitudes towards immigrants in Western countries. International Journal of Economic Sciences and Applied Research (IJESAR), 2 (2) 33-50. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=1579693

Bridgeway Education (2019). Integration vs. inclusion. Bridgeway Education Fl.: https://www.bridgewayed.com/integration-vs-inclusion/

Chabot, Laura (2013). Institutional barriers to employment for individuals with disabilities. Seminar Research Paper Series (Paper 31). http://digitalcommons.uri.edu/lrc_paper_series/31http://digitalcommons.uri.edu/lrc_paper_series/31

Charitou, S., Asonitou, K. & Koutsouki, D. (2010). Prediction of infant’s motor development. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 9, 456- 461.

Chatfield, S. L., & Cottingham, M. (2017). Perceptions of Athletes in disabled and non-disabled sport contexts: A descriptive qualitative research study. The Qualitative Report, 22(7), 1909-1924. http://nsuworks.nova.edu/tqr/vol22/iss7/11

CSIE (2002). Index for Inclusion: Developing learning and participation in schools. Centre for Studies on Inclusive Education (CSIE) https://www.eenet.org.uk/resources/docs/Index%20English.pdf

Duncan, C., Messner, M., Williams, L. & Jensen, K. (1994). Gender stereotyping in televised sports. In S. Birrel & L. C. Cole (eds.), Women, sport, and culture (pp 249-273). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics Press.

Duncan, M. C., M. A. Messner & N. Williams 2005. Gender in televised sports: News and highlights shows, 1989‐2004. Los Angeles: Amateur Athletic Foundation of Los Angeles.

Harman, B. (2016). Inclusion / Integration. Is There a Difference? First edition [ebook] Canadian Down Syndrome Society, https://cdss.ca/wp-content/uploads/2016/06/CDSS-integration-vs-inclusion.pdf

Harnett, A. (2000) Escaping the evil avenger and the supercrip: Images of disability in popular television, Irish Communication Review, 8(1), doi:10.21427/D7271M

Kalyvas, V. A., Koutsouki, D., Skordilis, E. (2011). Attitudes of Greek physical education students towards participation in a disability-infusion curriculum. Education Research Journal, 1(2), 24- 30.

Kamberidou, I. (2019). Gender integration in the military: Gender-neutral standards and coed sports. European Journal of Physical Education and Sport Science, 5(11), 23-45. Open Access Publishing Group, doi: 10.5281/zenodo.3364728. Publisher’s version: https://oapub.org/edu/index.php/ejep/article/view/2566/5204 Copy at http://www.tinyurl.com/y4k6cbgk

Kamberidou, I. (2011). Athlete Activism and Peace Education: Bridging the Social Inequality Gap through Sports. NEBULA 8.1, a Journal of Multidisciplinary Scholarship, 168–180, Australia. Copy at http://www.tinyurl.com/yysv296s m http://www.nobleworld.biz/images/Kamberidou2.pdf

Kamberidou, I. (2012). Athletes United for Peace: Reconciliation through Sport. Proceedings of the international conference Sport as a Mediator between Cultures. Wingate Institute for Physical Education and Sport, Israel: International Council of Sport Science and Physical Education (ICSSPE/CIEPSS), Hanns-Braun-Strase Friesenhaus II D-14053 Berlin. Editors Lidor, R., Schneider, K.H. & Koenen, K. ISBN 978-3-9811179-4-3 Copy at http://www.tinyurl.com/hq8jocp

Kamberidou, I. & Chroni, S. (2016). The Greek Experience: Outstanding Women in the Social Space of Sport. In Inspirational Women in Europe: making a difference in Physical Education, Sport and Dance (pp. 224–242). Juiz de Fora, Brazil: Rosa Diketmüller, Editor. Continent Series, Publication of the International Association of Physical Education and Sport for Girls and Women (IAPESGW), ISBN 978-85-67380-55-1 Copy at: http://www.tinyurl.com/zcxmakh

Kefi Chatzihamperi, E. (2019). Sport activities as a means of inclusion for women in the Hellenic Higher Military Training Institutions. Doctoral dissertation, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, School of Physical Education and Sport Science, Sociology of Sport (work in progress).

Kefi Chatzichamperi, E. (2018). Military sport’s contribution in creating social capital in the Hellenic Higher Military Training Institutions. Journal of Philosophy & Education, 24 (77-78): 48-50 [in Greek].

Kiefer, M. (2019). Disability sport: Integration and inclusion. SCI-Sports Conflict Institute https://sportsconflict.org/disability-sport-integration-inclusion/

Kiuppis, F. (2018) Inclusion in sport: disability and participation, Sport in Society, 21:1, 4-21, doi: 10.1080/17430437.2016.1225882 , https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/17430437.2016.1225882

Vislie, L. (2010). From integration to inclusion: Focusing global trends and changes in the western European societies. European Journal of Special Needs Education, 18 (1), 17-35. Taylor & Francis https://doi.org/10.1080/0885625082000042294

Marino, S. (2017). Part 1: The Special Ed Epidemic: What is Happening to our Children? FOCUS for Health, October 23, 2017: https://www.focusforhealth.org/special-ed/

Martin, J. J. (2017). Supercrip identity. Handbook of Disability Sport and Exercise Psychology. Oxford University Press. Published to Oxford Scholarship Online, doi: 10.1093/oso/9780190638054.001.0001

McCall, K. (2016). Globally defining an inclusive education standard. Journal on Technology and Persons with Disabilities Santiago, J. (Eds): Annual International Technology and Persons with Disabilities Conference. California State University, Northridge.

McMaster, S., Culver, D. & Werthner, P. (2012). Coaches of athletes with a physical disability: A look at their learning experiences. Qualitative Research in Sport 4(2), doi: 10.1080/2159676X.2012.686060

Messner, M. A., Cooky, C., Hextrum, R. & Nyad, D. (2010). Gender in televised sports: News and highlights shows, 1989-2009. University of Southern California, Center for Feminist Research.

Messner, M. A., Duncan, C. & Cooky, C. (2003). Silence, sports bras, and wrestling porn: The treatment of women in televised sports news and highlights, Journal of sport and social issues 27: 38‐51.

Messner, M. A., Duncan, C., & Wachs, F. L. (1996). The gender of audience building: Televised coverage of men's and women's NCAA basketball, Sociological inquiry 66: 422‐439.

Patsantaras, N. (2013). Using global sport ceremonies for activating human rights. International Sports Law Review Pandektis (ISLR), 10 (1-2), 30-50.

Patsantaras, N. (2015). Cosmopolitanism, an alternative way of thinking in the contemporary Olympics. European Journal for Sport and Society, 12 (2), 215-238. https://doi.org/10.1080/16138171.2015.11687963

Patsantaras, N., Kamberidou, I. & Panagiotopoulos, P. (2009). Sports: Social Inclusion or Xenophobia. Pandektis International Sports Law Review (IASL), 7(3), 394-404. Copy at http://www.tinyurl.com/y2k4aq74 and https://pergamos.lib.uoa.gr/uoa/dl/object/2775383

Swanson, S.R, Colwell, T. & Zhao, Y. (2008). Motives for participation and importance of social support for athletes with physical disabilities. Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology 2(4): 317-336. https://doi.org/10.1123/jcsp.2.4.317

Sherrill, C. (2004). Young people with disability in physical education/physical activity/sport in and out of schools: Technical report for the World Health Organization, ICSSPE/CIEPSS (pp.1-23. https://www.icsspe.org/sites/default/files/YOUNGPEOPLE.pd

Silva, C. & Howe, P. (2012). The [In] Validity of Supercrip Representation of Paralympic athletes. Journal for Sport and Social Issues. 36 (2), 174-194 doi: 10.1177/0193723511433865

Statistics Canada (2018). Canadian Survey on Disability, 2017: Released: 2018-11-28 https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/daily-quotidien/181128/dq181128a-eng.htm

Tiendra M. (2013) Diversity ≠ Inclusion: Promoting Integration in Higher Education. Educational Researcher, 42 (9): 467-475. https://doi.org/10.3102/0013189X13516164

UCED (2017). Disability statistics annual report. A Publication of the Rehabilitation Research and Training Center on Disability Statistics and Demographics Institute, pp 1-48. Demographics Institute on Disability/UCED, University of New Hampshire https://disabilitycompendium.org/sites/default/files/user-uploads/2017_AnnualReport_2017_FINAL.pdf (Accessed September 11, 2019).

UK Work and Pensions (2018). National statistics, family resources survey: Financial year 2016/17. Department of Work and Pensions: https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/692771/family-resources-survey-2016-17.pdf

UNESCO (1994). The Salamanca Statement and Framework for Action on Special Needs Education Adopted by the World Conference on Special Needs Education: Access and Equality. Salamanca, Spain, 7-10 June 1994. United Nations Ministry of Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, and the Ministry of Education and Science, Spain. Printed in UNESCO. http://www.unesco.org/education/pdf/SALAMA_E.PDF

UNESCO (2008). Inclusive Education: The Way of the Future. General presentation of the 48th Session of the ICE. UNESCO, pp. 1-21, Geneva. http://www.ibe.unesco.org/fileadmin/user_upload/Policy_Dialogue/48th_ICE/General_Presentation-48CIE-English.pdf

United Nations (2016). Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD), 10th anniversary of the CRPD https://www.un.org/development/desa/disabilities/convention-on-the-rights-of-persons-with-disabilities/the-10th-anniversary-of-the-adoption-of-convention-on-the-rights-of-persons-with-disabilities-crpd-crpd-10.html

United Nations (2019). Commission for Social Development Report on the fifty-seventh session (7 February 2018 and 11–21 February 2019). Economic and Social Council. Official Records, 2019 Supplement No. 6. E/2019/26-E/CN.5/2019/10. United Nations, New York, https://undocs.org/E/CN.5/2019/10

United Nations (n.d.). Disability and Sports. Department of Economic and Social Affairs Disability https://www.un.org/development/desa/disabilities/issues/disability-and-sports.html

WHO (2018). Disability and Health. World Health Organization, Global, 16 January 2018 https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/disability-and-health

Wilson, C. & McColl, M.A. (2019). Comparing integration and inclusion between Canadians and Americans with disabilities: Evidence from national surveys of time use. Canadian Journal of Disability Studies, vol. 9 no. 3. DOI: https://doi.org/10.15353/cjds.v8i3




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.46827/ejpe.v0i0.2658

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2019 Irene Kamberidou, Alexandros Bonias, Nikolaos Patsantaras

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Copyright © 2015-2018. European Journal of Physical Education and Sport Science (ISSN 2501 - 1235) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing Group. All rights reserved.


This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library (Biblioteca Nationala a Romaniei). All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms. All authors who send their manuscripts to this journal and whose articles are published on this journal retain full copyright of their articles. All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).