Gianpiero Greco, Elena D’Arcangelo, Roberto De Ronzi


To date, there is no standard definition of bullying, however, it can be characterized as a type of aggression, systematic and repeated, and based upon an imbalance of power in relationships through repeated verbal, physical and/or social behaviour that intends to cause physical, social and/or psychological harm. Youth with higher levels of resilience and self-efficacy are less likely to engage in aggressive behaviours or be victims of bullying. Previous anti-bullying approaches have often achieved no reduction in bullying behaviour. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the effect of 12 weeks of extracurricular multilateral training on the risk for students (14-16 years) to be involved in bullying. Sixty male students were allocated to an experimental group (n = 30) that performed psychoeducational activities combined with physical exercise training and team games (90 min, 2d·week-1) or control group (n=30). Before and after the intervention, we used CYRM-28 that assessed individual capacities and resources, relationship with primary caregiver, contextual factors and total resilience, and SEQ-C that measured academic, social, emotional, and total self-efficacy. Four participants from the experimental group withdrew. Significant improvements of crucial relevance were found for the resilience and self-efficacy scales (p < 0.05) in the experimental group. We found that extracurricular multilateral training may improve the resilience and self-efficacy in adolescents and make them less likely to engage in aggressive behaviour or be bullied. Multilateral training method should be considered as an effective alternative to the anti-bullying approach, highlighting the crucial role of the Physical Education professionals in the promotion of proactive educational strategies to prevent bullying.

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special education; resilience; self-efficacy; physical exercise; victimization

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