HOW TEMPERAMENT, CHARACTER, FLOW STATE & MOTIVATION PLAY ROLE IN ADVENTURE & NON-ADVENTURE SPORTS: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

Debjani Kar, Prasanta Kumar Roy

Abstract


Adventure Sports (AS) is mostly associated with high risk-taking behaviors, unlike Non-adventure sports (NAS). Still, the AS persons can be highly functional while risking their lives for their passion for adventure sports. Therefore, we assumed for this study that the psychological processes involved in participation in Adventure sports might be different. The study intended to identify the difference in dispositional factors, the experience of flow state and motivational factors of Adventure Sports persons as compared to Non-adventure Sportspersons. The sample consisted of trained persons/professionals of Adventure Sports (viz. mountaineering, kayaking, river rafting, etc.) (n = 21) and participants of Non-adventure outdoor sports (viz. cricketers, footballers, etc.) (n = 21). We used the Temperament and Character Inventory, Flow State Scale, and Motivational Factors Scale. The findings revealed that low harm avoidance could be a dispositional factor for choosing adventure sports whereas; to gain status could be a factor to select non-adventure games.

Article visualizations:

Hit counter


Keywords


adventure sport, disposition, flow state, motivation, risk-taking

Full Text:

PDF

References


Allman, T. L., Mittelstaedt, R. D., Martin, B., & Goldenberg, M. (2009). Exploring the Motivations of BASE Jumpers: Extreme Sports Enthusiasts. Journal of Sport & Tourism,14(4), 229-247. doi:10.1080/14775080903453740

Apter, M. J. (1992). The Dangerous Edge: The Psychology of Excitement. New York: The Free Press.

Baker, T., & Simon, J. (2010). Embracing Risk The Changing Culture of Insurance and Responsibility. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Brymer, E. (2009). The Extreme Sports Experience: A Research report. IFPRA World, March. 6-7.

Brymer, E. (2010). Risk taking in Extreme Sports: A phenomenological perspective. Annals of Leisure Research,13(1-2), 218-238. doi:10.1080/11745398.2010.9686845

Brymer, E., & Gray, T. (2009). Dancing with nature: Rhythm and harmony in extreme sport participation. Journal of Adventure Education & Outdoor Learning,9(2), 135-149. doi:10.1080/14729670903116912

Brymer, E., & Oades, L.G. (2009). Extreme sports: a positive transformation in courage and humility? as accessed from http://eprints.qut.edu.au/27004

Brymer, E., & Schweitzer, R. (2013). The search for freedom in extreme sports: A phenomenological exploration. Psychology of Sport and Exercise,14(6), 865-873. doi:10.1016/j.psychsport.2013.07.004

Cater, C. I. (2006). Playing with risk? Participant perceptions of risk and management implications in adventure tourism. Tourism Management,27(2), 317-325. doi:10.1016/j.tourman.2004.10.005

Cloninger, C.R., Przybeck, T.R., Svrakic D.M., Wetzel, R. (1994). "The Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI): A Guide to its Development and Use," Washington University. Retrieved from : http://www.researchgate.net/publication/264329741.

Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1990). Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience.

Ewert, A. (1994). Playing the Edge: Motivation and Risk Taking in a High Altitude Wilderness like Environment and Behavior. Journal of Travel Research, 26/ 1, 3-24.

Goldberg, D. P. (1978). Manual of the General Health Questionnaire, NFER Publishing Company.

Han, D. H., Kim, J. H., Lee, Y. S., Bae, S. J., Bae, S. J., Kim, H. J., Sim, M. Y., Sung, Y. H., and Lyoo, I. K. (2006). Influence of Temperament & Anxiety on Athletic Performance, International Journal of Sport Science & Medicine, 5 (3), 381-389.

Hetland, A. (2009). Feeling the extreme: An exploratory study of experienced emotions during extreme sport. University of Tromso, Norway.

Jackson, S., Marsh, H. (1996). Development and Validation of a Scale to Measure Optimal Experience: The Flow State Scale, Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 18(3), 17-85.

Kerr, J. H. (1997) & Svebak (1989). Motivational Aspects of preference for and participation in risk sports. Personality and Individual Differences, 10, 797-800.

Kettunen, S., Saukko, M. (1999). Live or Die: Extreme-Athletes’ Personality Structure and Functioning, Motives, and Flow Experience, Jyvaskyla University, Finland.

Konkel, L. (2009). Extreme Psychology, There may be more to high-risk sports than a “no fear” mantra. Scienceline: the shortest distance between you and science, a project of nyu’s science, health, and environmental reporting program, as accessed from https://scienceline.org/2009/07/health-konkel-extreme-sports-risk-psychology/

Kotler, S. (2019, January 30). Your Brain Performs Better When It Slows Down, with Steven Kotler. Retrieved December 04, 2020, from https://bigthink.com/think-tank/steven-kotler-flow-states

Laffollie, D. (2010). Detection of high-risk personalities in risky sports, Encephale, 33 (2), 135-141.

Mackenzie, S. H., Hodge, K., Boyes, M. (2011). Expanding the Flow Model in Adventure Activities: A Reversal Theory Perspective, Journal of Leisure Research, 43(4), 519-544.

Monasterio, E., Mei-Dan, O., Hackney, A. C., Lane, A. R., Zwir, I., Rozsa, S., et al. (2016). Stress reactivity and personality in extreme sports athletes: the psychobiology of BASE jumpers. Physiol. Behav. 167, 289–297. doi: 10.1016/j.physbeh.2016.09.025

Monasterio, E., Mulder, R., Frampton, C., and Mei-Dan, O. (2012). Personality Characteristics of BASE Jumpers, Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 24(4,), 391-400.

Monasterio, E., Mulder, R., Frampton, C., and Mei-Dan, O. (2012). Personality characteristics of base jumpers. J. Appl. Sport Psychol.24, 391–400. doi: 10.1080/10413200.2012.666710

Monasterio, Erik & Mei-Dan, Omer & Hackney, Anthony & Lane, Amy & Zwir, Igor & Rózsa, Sándor & Cloninger, Robert. (2016). Stress reactivity and personality in extreme sports athletes: The psychobiology of BASE jumpers. Physiology & Behavior. 167. 10.1016/j.physbeh.2016.09.025.

Pedersen, D. M., and Manning, C. L. (2004). Attributions of Athletes on Collegiate Sports Teams, Pubmed.gov, 99 (3.1), 799-810.

Rhea, D. J., & Martin, S. (2010). Personality Trait Differences of Traditional Sports Athletes, Bullriders, and other Alternative Sports Athletes. International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching,5(1), 75-85. doi:10.1260/1747-9541.5.1.75

Saxena, K. & Dey, A. (2010). Treks’n Rapids: Identifying Motivational Factors for Adventure Sports, Journal of Economics and Business Administration, 2 (2), 172-178.

Shill, D. (2013). The Effects of Personality Traits upon the Long Term Involvement of Participants in an Adventure Sport. University of Chichester.

Wheaton, B. (2005). Understanding lifestyle sports: Consumption, identity, and difference. London: Routledge.

Zuckerman, M. (1983). Sensation seeking and sports. Personality and Individual Differences, 4(3), 285-292. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0191-8869(83)90150-2

Zulkefly, S. N., and Baharudin, R. (2010). Using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) to Assess the Psychological Health of Malaysian College Students, Global Journal of Health Science, DOI: 10.5539/gjhs.v2n1p73.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.46827/ejpe.v6i9.3461

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2020 Debjani Kar, Prasanta Kumar Roy

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Copyright © 2015-2022. European Journal of Physical Education and Sport Science (ISSN 2501 - 1235) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing Group. All rights reserved.


This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library (Biblioteca Nationala a Romaniei). All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms. All authors who send their manuscripts to this journal and whose articles are published on this journal retain full copyright of their articles. All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).