Howard Z. Zeng


Problem Statement: Since the Youth Olympic Summer Games became a new global sports event in 2010 and is held every four years, youth athletes’ behaviors and factors that motivated them to continually participate in the sport they choose have become interesting research inquiries: what are the reasons/factors that really motivated them continually engaged in the sports they love? Can these reasons/factors be identified and predicted? Purpose: The purposes of this study were to examine the traits of essential factors that motivated the youth basketball players to participate in their practices and competitions; examine how Gender, Supporting, Goal-setting, Years Playing Basketball related elements impacted their levels of participation-motivations; and the relationships among these psychological needs and motivation factors. Furthermore, the predictors among the psychological needs associated with their essential motivation factors were also explored. Methods: The Adapted Youth Basketball Players' Participation-Motivations Questionnaire was used for data collection; and Self-Determination Theory was used as the theoretical framework; the participants were 253 youth basketball players (Boys = 136, Girls = 117). Data analyses were done by a 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 factorial MANOVA, exploratory factor analysis, and multiple regression analyses. Results: Findings indicate that Supporting and Goal-setting elements had significant effects on the youth basketball players’ participation-motivations, but Gender and Years Play Basketball elements did not. The youth basketball players who were supported by parents possessed higher participant motivations than those supported by their schools. The participants who set their goals for professionals possessed higher participation-motivations than those who set goals for non-professional. Conclusions: In conclusion, through multiple statistics approaches and analyses, the traits and relationships among the youth basketball players’ participation-motivations, and how their motivations associate with the four related elements can be identified and predicted.

Article visualizations:

Hit counter


self-determination; goal-setting; coaching; management

Full Text:



Basketball Player Positions. Basketball Player Positions. Available: 2017.

Breese HP, 1998. Participation motivation in ITF Taekwondo: A study of the central districts region [Master Theses]. Massey University, NZ.

Chen S, Sun H, Zhu X, & Chen, A, 2014. Relationship between motivation and learning in physical education and after-school physical activity. Journal of Research Quarterly for Excise and Sport, 85: 468-477.

Child, D. 1990. The essentials of factor analysis, second edition. London: Cassel Educational Limited.

Claver F, Jiménez R, Gil-Arias A, Moreno A, & Moreno MP, 2017. The Cognitive and Motivation Intervention Program in Youth Female Volleyball Players. Journal of Human Kinetics. 59: 55-65.

Cox RH, 2011. Sport psychology: Concepts and application. Dubuque, Iowa: W.C. Brown.

Duricek M, Cynarski WL, 2017. Motivational incentives of all-round entertainers and types of psychical processes of participants during animation programs. Ido Movement for Culture. Journal of Martial Arts Anthropology, 17: 9-14, doi: 10.14589/ido.17.1.4

Faurschou B, 2015. History of Basketball - NBA hoops online. Available:

Geidne S, Quennerstedt M, Eriksson C, 2013. The youth sports club as a health-promoting setting: An integrative review of research. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health. 41: 269–283, doi: 10.1177/1403 494812473204.

Gonzalez-Cutre D, Sicilia A, 2012. Motivation and Exercise Dependence: A Study Based on Self-Determination Theory. Journal of Research Quarterly for Excise and Sport, 83: 318-329.

Kaplan A, 2010. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation. Available:

Lippitt E, 2012. Motivation, Need Support and Need Satisfaction in Youth Soccer Players. Master Thesis.

McPherson SC, 2015. Motivational climate and goal orientation in adolescent male football Players. Master Thesis. Clemson University.

Miguel, C., and Machar, M. R. (2007). Motivation in tennis. British Journal of Sport Medicine, 41: 769-772, doi: 10.1136/bjsm.2007.036285.

NBA Draft, 2016. 2003 NBA Draft where are they now?

National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA), 2018. College Basketball. https://en.wikipedia. org/wiki/ National_ Collegiate_Athletic_ Association

New York City Department of Education (NYCDE), 2018). New York City School Portals.

New York City Youth Basketball League (NYCYBL), 2018. The New York City youth basketball league.

Official Report, 2010. The official report: Singapore 2010 Youth Olympic Games.

Pintrich PR, Schunk D, 2002. Motivation in education: Theory, research and applications (Second ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Ryan RM, Deci EL, 2000. Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well being. American Psychologist, 55: 68-78.

Ryan RM, Frederick CM, Lepes D, Rubio D, Sheldon KS, 1997. Intrinsic motivation and exercise adherence. International Journal of Sports Psychology, 28: 355-354.

Smith AL, Balagurer I, Duda JL, 2006. Goal orientation profile differences on perceived motivational climate, perceived peer relationships, and motivation-related responses of youth athletes. Journal of Sports Sciences, 24: 1315-1327.

Stellion MB, Sinclair CD, 2013. Psychological predictors of children’s recess physical activity motivation and behavior. Research Quarterly for Excise and Sport, 84: 167-176.

Zeng HZ, 2018. Exploring of Youth Volleyball Players’ Engagement Motivations and Health Related Behaviors. European Journal of Physical Education and Sport. 6: 80-94, doi: 10.13187/ejpe.2018.2.80

Zeng HZ, 2018. An Investigation of Youth Football Players’ Participation Motivations and Health Related Behaviors. The Sport Journal, October 18. America's Sport University®.

Zeng ZH, 2019. A Study of Youth Martial Arts Athletes’ Engagement Motivations and Their Health Related Behaviors. Ido Movement for Culture. Journal of Martial Arts Anthropology, 19: 20-33, doi: 10.14589/ido.19.1.2.

Zeng ZH, Meng WY, Sun P, Xie LS, 2019. A Study of Youth Soccer Players' Participation Motivation and Health Related Elements. The Physical Educator, 76: 327-355.

Zhu W, 2012. Sadly, the earth is still round (p< 0.05). Journal of Sport and Health Science, 1: 9-11.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2021 Howard Z. Zeng

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Copyright © 2015 - 2023. European Journal of Physical Education and Sport Science (ISSN 2501 - 1235) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing Group. All rights reserved.

This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library (Biblioteca Nationala a Romaniei). All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms. All authors who send their manuscripts to this journal and whose articles are published on this journal retain full copyright of their articles. All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).