Esin Kaplan


The aim of this study is to examine the heart rate variability (HRV) parameters, trait anxiety, and competitive state anxiety levels of active individuals. The research was conducted with a total of 28 men and women aged 18-26 who exercise regularly. Personal information form, trait anxiety inventory, and competitive state anxiety inventory (CSAI-2) were applied to the volunteers. Heart Rate Variability measurement was performed using the Heart Math emWave Pro + device. In the analysis of the data, normal distribution criteria were checked using the Shapiro-Wilk test. T-test was used for variables with normal distribution, and Mann Whitney U test was used for variables that did not show normal distribution. Pearson and Spearman correlation analyzes were conducted to examine the relationship between cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety, and HRV parameters. According to the findings, a statistically significant difference in favor of women was found between the genders in the LF / HF (log) (p = .011) parameter (p <0.05). According to the correlation analysis, a significant negative correlation was observed between somatic anxiety and the parameters SDNN, RMSSD, LF (Log) (-.457; -.403; -.462 respectively). In conclusion, men and women who exercise regularly have similar anxiety states. It is observed that women have better sympathovagal balance compared to men. The absence of stress parameters that cause impairment in heart rhythm such as anxiety does not cause deterioration in the structure of HRV. In addition, there is a negative correlation between somatic anxiety and some HRV parameters.

Article visualizations:

Hit counter


HRV, anxiety, regular exercise

Full Text:



Ayuso-Moreno R M, Fuentes-García J P, Collado-Mateo D & Villafaina S, 2020. Heart Rate Variability and Pre-Competitive Anxiety According to The Demanding Level of The Match in Female Soccer Athletes. Physiology & Behavior, 112926.

Blásquez J CC, Font G R, Ortís L C, 2009. Heart-rate variability and precompetitive anxiety in swimmers. Psicothema 21(4), 531-536.

Chalmers J A, Quintana D S, Abbott M J, Kemp A H, 2014. Anxiety Disorders are Associated with Reduced Heart Rate Variability: A Meta-Analysis. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 5, 80.

Earnest C P, Lavie C J, Blair S N, Church T S, 2008. Heart Rate Variability Characteristics in Sedentary Postmenopausal Women Following Six Months of Exercise Training: The DREW Study. Plos One, 3(6), e2288.

Friedman B H, 2007. An Autonomic Flexibility–Neurovisceral İntegration Model of Anxiety and Cardiac Vagal Tone. Biological Psychology, 74(2), 185-199.

Friedman B H, Thayer J F, 1998. Autonomic balance revisited: panic anxiety and heart rate variability. Journal of psychosomatic research, 44(1), 133-151.

Fortes L S, da Costa B D, Paes P P, do Nascimento Júnior J R, Fiorese L, Ferreira M E, 2017. Influence of Competitive-Anxiety on Heart Rate Variability İn Swimmers. Journal of Sports Science & Medicine, 16(4), 498.

Gellman M D, Turner J R, 2013. Encyclopedia of behavioral medicine, Springer New York, USA

Jarvis M, 2006. Sport psychology: A student's handbook. Routledge.119-120

Jurca R, Church T S, Morss G M, Jordan A N, Earnest C P, 2004. Eight Weeks of Moderate-İntensity Exercise Training İncreases Heart Rate Variability in Sedentary Postmenopausal Women. American Heart Journal, 147(5), e8-e15.

Koenig J, Thayer J F, 2016. Sex Differences in Healthy Human Heart Rate Variability: A Meta-Analysis. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 64, 288-310.

Koruc Z, 1998. CSAI-2’nin Turkce uyarlamasi (The adaptation of CSAI-2 in Turkish). V. Congress on Sport Sciences. Ankara: Hacettepe Üniversitesi, 93

Kuusela T, 2012. Methodological aspects of heart rate variability analysis. In: Kamath M V, Watanabe M, Upton A, Eds. Heart rate variability (HRV) signal analysis: clinical applications. CRC Press, p:11-21

Lackey E D, 2014. Self-Regulation and heart rate variability coherence: promoting psychological resilience in healthcare leaders. PhD Thesis, University of Benedictine

Lee J, Kim J K, Wachholtz A, 2015. The Benefit of Heart Rate Variability Biofeedback and Relaxation Training in Reducing Trait Anxiety. Han'guk Simni Hakhoe Chi. Kon'gang The Korean Journal of Health Psychology, 20(2), 391.

Malik M, 1996. Heart Rate Variability: Standards of Measurement, Physiological İnterpretation, and Clinical Use: Task Force of The European Society Of Cardiology and The North American Society For Pacing and Electrophysiology. Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology, 1(2), 151-181.

Martens R, Vealey R S, Burton D, 1990. Competitive State Anxiety in Sport. Champaign IL: Human Kinetics Publishers, 117-190.

Mateo M, Blasco-Lafarga C, Martínez-Navarro I, Guzmán J F, Zabala M, 2012. Heart Rate Variability And Pre-Competitive Anxiety in BMX Discipline. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 112(1), 113-123.

McCraty R, Atkinson M, Tomasino D, Bradley R T, 2009. The Coherent Heart Heart-Brain Interactions, Psychophysiological Coherence, and the Emergence of System-Wide Order. Integral Review: A Transdisciplinary & Transcultural Journal for New Thought, Research, & Praxis, 5(2).

Melanson E L, Freedson P S, 2001. The Effect of Endurance Training on Resting Heart Rate Variability in Sedentary Adult Males. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 85(5), 442-449.

Morales J, Garcia V, García-Massó X, Salvá P, Escobar R, 2013. The Use of Heart Rate Variability in Assessing Precompetitive Stress in High-Standard Judo Athletes. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 34(02), 144-151.

Mullen R, Faull A, Jones E S, Kingston K, 2012. Attentional Focus and Performance Anxiety: Effects on Simulated Race-Driving Performance and Heart Rate Variability. Frontiers in Psychology 3(1), 1-10.

Öner N, Le Compte A, 1985. Durumluluk-Surekli Kaygi Envanteri El Kitabi, İstanbul. Boğaziçi Üniversitesi Yayınları.

Paula Jr E P, Paza D L S, Pierozan G C, Stefanello J M F, 2016. Heart Rate Variability and Emotional States in Basketball Players. Journal Of Exercise Physiology Online, 19(6).

Plutchik R, Kellerman H, 1980. Emotion, theory, research, and experience. Academic press.

Roberto C, Giuseppe D İ, Attilio C, 2018. Heart Rate Variability: An Overview and a Few İmmediate/Short-Term Assessments. Heart and Mind, 2(4), 111.

Routledge F S, Campbell T S, McFetridge-Durdle J A, Bacon S L, 2010. Improvements in Heart Rate Variability with Exercise Therapy. Canadian Journal of Cardiology, 26(6), 303-312.

Sammito S, Thielmann B, Seibt R, Klussmann A, Weippert M, Böckelmann I, 2015. Guideline for the application of heart rate and heart rate variability in occupational medicine and occupational science. ASU Int.

Shaffer F, Ginsberg J P, 2017. An Overview of Heart Rate variability Metrics and Norms. doi: 10.3389/fpubh.2017.00258

Spielberger C D, Gonzalez-Reigosa F, Martinez-Urrutia A, Natalicio L, Natalicio D S, 1971. Development of the Spanish Edition Of The State-Trait Anxiety İnventory. Interamerican Journal of Psychology, 5(3-4), 145-158.

Spielman R M, Dumper K, Jenkins W, Lovett M, Perlmutter M, 2014. Psychology. Rice University, Textbook, 550-551



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2021 Esin Kaplan

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Copyright © 2015-2022. European Journal of Physical Education and Sport Science (ISSN 2501 - 1235) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing Group. All rights reserved.

This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library (Biblioteca Nationala a Romaniei). All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms. All authors who send their manuscripts to this journal and whose articles are published on this journal retain full copyright of their articles. All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).