Ratko Pavlović, Borko Petrović, Mensur Vrcić


Race walking (RW) is a cyclic athletic discipline, of aerobic character, which is characterized by high intensity and high energy consumption. The result is correlated with the anthropological dimensions of the walker as well as good technical performance. The study includes 25 male students, third year of study, Faculty of Physical Education and Sports in East Sarajevo. For the purposes of the research, the results of RW at 2km (criterion variable) were measured, on the basis of which average values of walking speed (WS) were calculated. The aim of the research was to determine the correlation between the achieved result depending on the walking speed. By applying the Pearson product of the correlation moment, the obtained results confirmed a significant and high correlation between the result and the walking speed (r = -0.988; p<0.05) with an inverse function that confirms the high dependence of the result on the WS.

Article visualizations:

Hit counter


walking race, average speed, oscillations

Full Text:



Alves, DL., Cruz, R., Domingos, PR., Osiecki, R., De Oliveira, FR., Lima, JP. (2018). Do warnings received in race walking influence the speed of athletes? International journal of Performance Analysis in Sport. 18 (3), 463-469.

Brodani, J., & Šelinger, P. (2001). Dynamics of pedestrian step changes as the speed of walking is increased. In ATLETIKA 2001. Banská Bystrica: UMB, (p 34).

Brodáni, J., Vavák, M., Šelinger, P. (2003). The share of kinematic indicators on the speed variability of a pedestrian step. Studia Kinanthropologica – The Scientific journal for Kinanthropology. 4 (2),75-80.

Brodáni, J., Šelinger, P., & Vavák, M. (2011). Athletic Walking in Terms of Kinematic Parameters of Walking Step. In monography (Ed.). M.Pupiš et al. World race walking research (162-170).

Cairns, M., Burdette, R., Pisciotta, J., & Simon, S. (1986). A biomechanical analysis of race-walking gait. Medicine and Science in Sport and Exercise, 18(4), 446-453.

Chwała W. (2009) Influence of space-time parameters on oscillations of the general center of gravity OSC in the function of increasing speed of sports walk in the group of master class walkers, In: Urbanik, Cz., Mastalerz, A., (ed.), Biomechanics of sport and rehabilitation - selected issues, Oficyna Drukarska Jacek Chmielewski, University of Physical Education in Warsaw, (pp.29-43).

Dvorák, M. et al. 1990. Methodical sheets 18. Preparation of Czechoslovak pedestrians for the Olympic Games in Seoul - 1988. Prague. VMOÚU ŠTV. (p.72).

Dodig, M (2002). Modeli i modeliranje tjelovježbovnih procesa [Models and modeling of exercise processes. In Croatian] Rijeka: Sveučilište u Rijeci.

Drake, A.,& James, R. (2011). Prediction of Race-Walking Performance Via Laboratory and Field Tests. In monography (Ed.). M.Pupiš et al. World race walking research (pp.71-79)

Fenton, R. M. (1984). Race walking ground reaction forces. In: J. Terauds ed., Research Center for Sports, Del Mar, California, 61-70.

Fruktov, A., Korolyov, G., & Ozerov, V. (1984). Technique and faults in race walking. Modern Athlete and Coach, 22(3), 35-37.

Gomez-Ezeiza, J., Torres-Unda, J., Tam, N., Irazusta, J., Granados, C., & Santos-Concejero, J. (2018). Race walking gait and its influence on race walking economy in world-class race walkers. Journal of Sport Sciences, 36 (19), 2235-41

Hanley, B., Drake, A., Bissas, A. (2008). The biomechanics of elite race walking: technique analysis and the effects of fatigue. New studies in athletics, (4), 17–25.

Hanley, B., Bissas, A., Drake, A. (2008). Initial findings of a biomechanical analysis at the 2008 IAAF World Race Walking Cup. New studies in athletics, (4), 27–34.

Hanley, B., Bissas, A., & Drake, A. (2011). The Biomechanics of Efficient Race Walking. In monography (Ed.).M.Pupiš et al. World race walking research (pp.171-192)

Hoga K, Ae, M., Enomoto Y, Yokozawa T, Fujii N. (2006). Joint torque and mechanical energy flow in the support legs of skilled race walkers. Sports Biomech. (5), 167–182.

Hoga, K. (2011). Mechanical Energy Flow Between Body Segments on Race Walking. In monography (Ed.).M.Pupiš et al. World race walking research (pp.113-129)

Idrizović, K. (2010) Atletika I i II. [Athletics I-II. In Serbian]. Univerzitet Crne Gore: Biblioteka biomedicinskih nauka.

Kampmiller, T., Vavák, M. Laczo, E. & Šelinger, P. (1998). Analysis of kinematic structure of athletics walking. In Seminar for Race Walking Coaches. Bratislava. (pp.37-53).

Knicker, A., & Loch, M. (1990). Race walking technique and judging – the final report of the International Athletic Federation research project. New Studies in Athletics, 5(3), 25-38.

Kozloff, E. H. (2004). Edward Payson Weston and the 1861 Inauguration: the feats of the “pedestrians” of the 19th century continue to astonish historians of running. Marathon and Beyond, 8(6), 122-138.

Murray, M. P., Guten, G. N., Mollinger, L. A., & Gardner, G. M.(1983). Kinematic and electromyographic patterns of Olympic race walkers. The American Journal of Sports Medicine, 11(2), 68-74.

Minetti AE, Ardigo LP, Saibene F. (1994). Mechanical determinants of the minimum energy cost of gradient running in humans. J Exp Biol 195: 211–225, 1994.

Minetti AE, Moia C, Roi GS, Susta D, Ferretti G. (2002). Energy cost of walking and running at extreme uphill and downhill slopes. J Appl Physiol. (93), 1039–1046.

Mihajlović, I (2010). Atletika. [Athletics. In Serbian]. Novi Sad: Fakultet sporta i fizičkog vaspitanja

Pavlović, R. (2014). Atletika 1. [Athletics I. In Serbian]. SIA. Niš

Pavlović, R., & Mihajlović, I. (2020). Race Walking: Morphological and Motor-Functional Parameters as Success Factors. Physical Culture. Sport. Tourism. Motor Recreation, 5 (1), 103-111. Chelyabinsk State University.

Pupiš, M., & Čillík, I., (2005). Load intensity at endurance performance. In: Athletics 2005, Prague: Falon.

Pavei, G., La Torre, A. (2016). The effects of speed and performance level on race walking kinematics. Sport Sci Health 12, 35–47. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11332-015-0251-z

Padulo, J, Annino, G, D'Ottavio, S, Vernillo, G, Smith, L, Migliaccio, GM, and Tihanyi, J. (2013). Footstep analysis at different slopes and speeds in elite race walking. J Strength Cond Res 27(1), 125–129.

Ruhling, R. O., & Hopkins, J. A. (1990). Race Walking. In: Reilly, T. ed. Physiology of Sports, London, E and FN Spon, 153-171.

Stanković, D., & Raković, A. (2010). Atletika [Athletics. In Serbian] Niš: Fakultet sporta i fizičkog vaspitanja.

Trowbridge, E. A. (1981). Walking or running - when does lifting occur? Athletics Coach, 15(1), 2-6.

La Torre, A. (2010). The 20 km of travel by Ivano Brugnetti [Italian]. Edizione Fidal: Atletica Studi.

La Torre, A., & Vernillo, G. (2011). The Training for the 20-Km. What Has Changed and What Might Change? In monography (Ed.). M.Pupiš et al. World race walking research (pp.80-94)

Villa, F. (1990). NSA photo sequences 12 and 13: race walking. New Studies in Athletics, 5(3), 63-68.

Vanderka, M. (2008). Strength and speed skills in fitness training of athletes. Bratislava: ICM Agency, (p92).

Sovenko S.P., Budkevych H.B., Lytvynchuk T.V. (2014). Technical specifications of qualified sportswomen who specialize in race walking for 10 KM. Physical education of students. 8 (4), 37-41.

Vernillo G, Agnello L, Drake A, Padulo J, Piacentini MF, La Torre A. (2012). An observational study on the perceptive and physiological variables during a 10,000-m race walking competition. J Strength Cond Res. 26(10),2741-7. doi: 10.1519/JSC.0b013e318242a33c.

Yoshida, T., Udo, M., Iwai, K., Muraoka, I., Tamaki, K.,Yamaguchi, T., & Chida, M. (1989). Physiological determinants of race walking performance in female race walkers. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 23 (4) 250-254.

White, S.C., & Winter, D.A. (1985) Mechanical power analysis of the lower limb musculature in race walking. International Journal of Sport Biomechanics, 1 (1), 15-24.

Wiesław, C., Wacław, M., & Krzysztof, K. (2011). The Modern Instruments of Kinematic and Kinetic Technique Evaluation at the Competitors Practicing Race Walking. In monography (Ed.). M.Pupiš et al. World race walking research (193-212).

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.46827/ejpe.v6i11.3611


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2021 Ratko Pavlović, Borko Petrović, Mensur Vrcić

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Copyright © 2015-2018. European Journal of Physical Education and Sport Science (ISSN 2501 - 1235) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing Group. All rights reserved.

This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library (Biblioteca Nationala a Romaniei). All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms. All authors who send their manuscripts to this journal and whose articles are published on this journal retain full copyright of their articles. All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).