COMPARISON OF SOME BIOCHEMICAL VARIABLES DURING KICKBOXING COMPETITIONS

Mustafa Karadağ, Naci Ömer Alayunt, Kürşat Kargün, Yüksel Savucu, Ercan Gür, Alper Karadağ, Oktay Kızar

Abstract


Background: Kickboxing is a high-intensity, intermittent combat sport, which is characterized by short-term complex abilities and tactical key movements. In this study, it was aimed to investigate the factors related to variability in potential biochemical parameters and competition behavior of high-level kickboxing athletes. Methods: Blood samples of athletes, which were obtained pre- and post-maximal competition applied in accordance with the period, were investigated. In the study, a total of 50 athletes, which consisted of 39 male and 11 female amateur athletes with a mean age of 20.08 ± 6.33. Results: Significant differences were determined in the Body Mass Index (BMI) values between females and males. It was determined that athletes’ Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST), Alanine Transaminase (ALT), Total Oxidant Level (TOL) and Malondialdehyde (MDA) values were significantly increased pre- and post-competition while it was determined that Total Antioxidant Level (TAL) were significantly decreased (p<0.05). According to the findings, it was observed that there were statistically significant differences between serum antioxidant, oxidant and liver enzymes of amateur level kickboxing athletes pre- and post-competition. Conclusion: In conclusion, considering the effects of effects of strikes received on the chest area and the effects of the liver, which is located in the intersection of all metabolic pathways, on muscle, increases in liver enzymes is an ordinary situation. It was finally observed that the strikes received caused increases in liver enzyme levels while decreased TAL and increased TOL levels were encountered based on antioxidant enzyme levels spent for removing the free radicals formed as a result of heavy exercise.

Article visualizations:

Hit counter


Keywords


kickboxing, malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidant level (TAL), total oxidant level (TOL), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT)

Full Text:

PDF

References


Gartland S, Malik M, Lovell ME (2001). Injury and injury rates in Muay Thai kickboxing. Br J Sports Med, 35:308-313.

Aykın A. G (2010). Examination of the Administrative and Financial Structure of the Kick Boxing Federation. Institute of Social Sciences. Department of Sports Management. Master Thesis, Antalya: Akdeniz University.

Zazryn TR, Finch CF, McCrory PA (2003). 16 year study of injuries to professional kick boxers in the state of Victoria, Australia. Br J Sports Med;37:448-451.

Çolakoglu M, Tiryaki Ş, Moral S (1993). The Effect of Concentration Studies on Reaction Time. Journal of Sport Sciences, (4) 4, 32-47.

Tran ZV, Weltman A (1985). Differential effects of exercise on serum lipid and lipoprotein levels seen with changes in body weight: a meta-analysis. JAMA, 254:919-924.

La Monte MJ, Durstine JL, Addy CL, et al. (2001). Physical activity, physical fitness, and Framingham 10-year risk score: cross- cultural activity participation study. J Cardiopulm Rehabil; 21:63-70.

Günay M, Tamer K, Cicioğlu İ (2006). Sport Physiology and Performance Measurement. Ankara, Gazi Publishing.

Urso ML, Clarkson PM (2003). Oxidative stress, exercise andantioxidant supplementation. Toxicology, 189:41-54

Dündar Y, Aslan R. (1999). The Role of Vitamins in Oxidant-Antioxidant Equilibrium and Protection. Journal of Animal Husbandry Research, 9(1-2): 32-39.

Akkuş İ. (1995). Serbest Radikaller ve Fizyopatolojik Etkileri, Konya, Mimoza Yayınları, 1-75.

Cheeseman KH, Slater TF (1993). An introduction to free radical biochemistry. British Medical Bulletin, 49:481-93.

Dizdaroglu M, Jaruga P, Birincioglu M, Rodriguez H (2002). Free Radical-induced damage to DNA: mechanisms and measurement. Free Radical Biolog and Medicine, 32:1102-15

Yu BP (1993). Modulation o f membrane phospholipid fatty acid composition by Age and food restriction. Gerontology, 39: 7-18.

Hailiwell B, Gutteridge JMC (1986). Oxygen free radicals and iron in relation to biology and medicine: Some problems and concepts. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, 246(2): 501-514.

McCord JM (1993). Human disease, free radicals, and the oxidant/antioxidant balance. Clin Biochem, 26: 351-357.

Jain S, Mc Vie, R, Duett J, et al. (1989). Erytrocyte Membrane Lipid Peroxidase and Glycolylated Hemoglobin in Diabetes. Diabetes, Vol.38, pp 1539-1543.

Callard R, & Gearing A (1994). The Cytokine Facts Book. Orlando, Academic Press.

Çavuşoğlu H (1991). Exercise and blood, Istanbul Medical Faculty 11th Congress Proceedings Book, 249-252.

Gill S, Teixeira K, Rama A, Prestes L, Rosado J, Hankey F, Costa, R. J (2015). Circulatory endotoxin concentration and cytokine profile in response to exertional-heat stress during a multi-stage ultra-marathon competition. Exerc Immunol Rev, 21, 114-128.

Pingitore A, Pereira Lima G, Mastorci F, et al. (2015). Exercise and Oxidative Stress: Potential Effects of Antioxidant Dietary Strategies in Sports, Nutrition 13. (doi:10.1016/j.nut.2015.02.005).

Radak Z, Taylor A W, Ohno H, et al (2001). Adaptation to exercise induced oxidative stress: from muscle to brain. Exercise Immunology Review, 7:90-107.

Radak Z, Kaneko T, Tahara S, et al (1999). The effect of exercise training on oxidative damage of lipids, proteins and DNA in rat skeletal muscle: evidence for beneficial outcomes. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 27:69-74.

Leeuwenburgh C, Heinecke JW. (2001). Oxidative stress and antioxidants in exercise. Current Medicinal Chemistry, 8:829-838.

Ramel A, Wagner KH, Elmadfa I (2004). Plasma antioxidants and lipid oxidation after submaximal resistance exercise in men. European Journal of Nutrition, 43:2-6.

Radak Z, Asano K, Inoue M, et al. (1995). Superoxide dismutase derivative reduces oxidative damage in skeletal muscle of rats during exhaustive exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology (Bethesta, Md), 79:129-135.

Kürkçü R, Çakmak A, Zeyrek D. (2012). The effect of Taekwondo training on oxidative stress in children. Erciyes Medical Journal, 34:7-9.

Thirumalai T, Viviyan Therasa S, Elumalai EK, et al. (2011). Intense and exhaustive exercise induce oxidative stress in skeletal muscle, Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease, 63-66.

Aksu İ, Topcu A, Çamsari UM, Acikgöz O (2009). Effect of acute and chronic exercise on oxidant– antioxidant equilibrium in rat hippocampus, prefrontal cortex and striatum. Neuroscience Letters, 452:281-285.

Düzova H, Emre MH, Karakoç Y, et al (2006). Effect of medium and high treadmill exercise on muscle and erythrocyte oxidant/antioxidant system of rats. Journal of Inonu University Medical Faculty, 13:1- 5.

Sarıtaş N, Uyanık F, Hamucu Z, et al (2011). Effects of acute twelve two minute run test on oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activities. African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 5:1218-1222.

Pratt DS, Kaplan MM (2000). Evaluation of abnormal liver enzyme results in asymptomatic patients. New Engl J Med; 342:1266–1271.

Şentürk H, Canbakan B, Hatemi İ (2004). Clinical approach to liver enzyme elevations. Istanbul University, Cerrahpaşa Medical Faculty, Continuing Medical Education Activities, Gastroenterology Clinical Approach Symposium Series, İstanbul; 38:9-13.

Lenaerts AJ, Johnson CM, Marrieta KS, et al. (2005). Significant increases in the levels of liver enzymes in mice treated with anti-tuberculosis drugs, Int J Antimicrob Agents; 26:152-158.

Nathwani RA, Pais S, Reynolds TB, Kaplowitz N (2005). Serum alanine aminotransferase in skeletal muscle diseases. Hepatology;41:380-382.

Saha B, Maity C (2002Alteration of serum enzymes in primary hypothyroidism. Clin Chem Lab Med; 40:609-611.

Haralambie G (1973). Neuromuscular irritability and serum creatine phosphate kinase in athletes in training. Int Z Angew Physiol; 31:279-288.

Marcos Bürger-Mendonça, Bielavsky M, Fernanda C, Barbosa R (2008). Liver overload in Brazilian triathletes after halfironman competition is related muscle fatigue. Ann Hepatol; 7:245-248.

Lippi G, Schena F, Montagnana M, et al. (2011). Significant variation of traditional markers of liver injury after a halfmarathon run, European Journal of Internal Medicine; 22:36–38.

Rosmarın MN, Beard MJ, Robbıns SW (1993). Serum enzyme activities in individuals with different levels of physical fitness. J Sports Med Physical Fitness; 33:252-257.

Çakmakçı E, Pulur A (2008). The effects of national team camp period on some biochemical parameters in female Taekwondociler. S. U. PES, Science Journal, 10:39-47.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.46827/ejpe.v6i11.3628

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2021 Mustafa Karadağ, Naci Ömer Alayunt, Kürşat Kargün, Yüksel Savucu, Ercan Gür, Alper Karadağ, Oktay Kızar

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Copyright © 2015-2018. European Journal of Physical Education and Sport Science (ISSN 2501 - 1235) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing Group. All rights reserved.


This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library (Biblioteca Nationala a Romaniei). All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms. All authors who send their manuscripts to this journal and whose articles are published on this journal retain full copyright of their articles. All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).