Elena Avraam, Garyfallos Anagnostou


Regardless of the continued efforts towards gender equality, gender stereotypes are still apparent within the educational framework. The present paper is selectively reviewing women’s history in domains such as society, education, sports, and physical education (PE). For this review, important research findings were examined that address equality issues. Throughout the review, a comparison was further attempted between the available literature on gender stereotypes in Physical Education in Cyprus and around the Globe. In conclusion, it was recognised that although women’s role in sports is increasingly perceived as more important, there is still a lot of work to be done aiming at the furtherment of equality in many aspects including Physical Education.


Article visualizations:

Hit counter


gender stereotypes, physical education, review, gender equality

Full Text:



Aggeli, M., Lesta, S. (2018). GenderEd. Fighting gender stereotypes in education. Mediterranean Institute of Gender Studies. Funded by the European Union.

Alonso, G. C. B., Camacho, R. N., Herrero, R. F. (2021). Gender stereotypes in physical education. ESHPA - Education, Sport, Health and Physical Activity. 5(1): 27-40.

Altinok, N., & Aydemir, A. (2015). The Unfolding of Gender Gap in Education. Sciences de l'Homme et de la Société. Retrieved from https://halshs.archives-ouvertes.fr/halshs-01204805

Bois, J. E., Sarrazin, P. G., Brustad, R. J., Trouilloud, D. O., & Cury, F. (2002). Mothers’expectancies and young adolescents’ perceived physical competence: a yearlong study. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 22, 384-406.

Brabeck, M.; Brown, L. (1997). "Feminist theory and psychological practice". In Worell, J.; Johnson, N. (eds.). Shaping the Future of Feminist Psychology: Education, Research, and Practice. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association. 15–35.

Brown, D. (2005). An economy of gendered practices? Learning to teach physical education from the perspective of Pierre Bourdieu’s embodied sociology. Sport, Education and Society, 10(1), 3–23.

Brown, C. S., & Chu, H. (2012). Discrimination, ethnic identity, and academic outcomes of Mexican immigrant children: The importance of school context. Child development, 83(5), 1477-1485.

Cárcamo, C., Moreno, A., & Del Barrio, C. (2021). Girls do not sweat: the development of gender stereotypes in physical education in primary school. Human Arenas, 4(2), 196-217.

Caprile, M., Palmén, R., Sanz, P., & Dente, G. (2015). Encouraging STEM studies labour market situation and comparison of practices targeted at young people in different member states. Policy Department A, 12.

Camus, M. (2015). La vida en el coto: familia «a la vintage», mujer multifuncional y maternidad agendada. Sáenz, A., Peña, O. & Vivero, C.[Coords.], En torno a la maternidad. Aproximaciones de género socio-históricas y literarias, 69-98.

Castillo, O. D. (2009). Evaluation of psychosocial and didactic factors and didactic factors related to gender equity in physical education. (Doctoral Thesis, University of Seville, Seville, Spain). Assessed on 26.06.2022. Retrieved from http://fondosdigitales.us.es/tesis/thesis/935/evaluation-of-psychosocial-and-didactic-factors-related-with-gender-equity-in-physical-education.

Del Castillo Andrés, Ó., Granados, S. R., Ramírez, T. G., & del Carmen Campos Mesa, M. (2012). Gender equity in physical education: The use of information. Sex roles, 67(1), 108-121.

Chroni, S. (2006). Equality & equity in sport. Education of coaches & teachers of physical education on gender issues. Synchronous Themes, 94, 85-88. [In Greek].

Chroni, S., Koskeridou, M., Hasandra, M., Zurbanos, N., Gudas, M., Theodorakis, I., (2011). Opinions and Knowledge on Gender and Equality Issues and Teaching of School Physical Education. Searches in Physical Education and Sport, 9, 1-13. [In Greek].

Couturier, L. E., Chepko, S., & Coughlin, M. A. (2007). Whose gym is it? Gendered perspectives on middle and secondary school physical education. The Physical Educator, 64(3), 152-159.

Davis, K. L. (2003). Teaching for gender equity in physical education: a review of the literature. Women in sport and physical activity journal, 12(2), 55-81.

Deligianni, V., Ziogou, S. (1999). Education and Gender - Historical dimension and contemporary reflection. Thessaloniki: Vanias Publications.

Duffy, J., Warren, K., & Walsh, M. (2001). Classroom interactions: Gender of teacher, gender of student, and classroom subject. Sex roles, 45(9), 579-593.

European Commission (2016). Promoting citizenship and the common values of freedom, tolerance and non-discrimination through education: Overview of education policy developments in Europe following the Paris Declaration of 17 March 2015. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.

European Institute for Gender Equality (2016). Gender in education and training. Vilnius: EIGE.

Eurostat (2021). Gender pay gap statistics – Statistics Explained. Accessed on 25 May 2022 from http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-xplained/index.php/Gender_pay_gap_statistics

Flintoff, A. (1993). ’Gender, Physical Education and Initial Teacher Training’. In J. Evans (ed.), Equality, Education and Physical Education, London: Falmer: 184-204.

Flintoff, A., & Scraton, S. (2006). Girls and physical education. In D. Kirk, D. Macdonald, & M. O’Sullivan (Eds.), The Handbook of Physical Education (pp. 767-783). London: Sage Publications.

Flintoff, A. (2011). Gender and learning in physical education and youth sport. In K. Armour, (Ed.) Sport Pedagogy: An Introduction for Teaching and Coaching, (pp. 202- 213). London: Routledge.

Flintoff, A., & Scraton, S. (2013). Gender, Feminist Theory, and Sport. In D. L. Andrews & B. Carrington (Eds.), A Companion to Sport (pp. 96-111). Oxford: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Francis, B. & Skeleton, C. (2005). Reassessing gender and achievement. London: Routledge.

Gouvias, D., & Alexopoulos, C. (2016). Sexist stereotypes in the language textbooks of the Greek primary school: a multidimensional approach. Gender and Education, 1–21.

Gullu, M., & Temel, C. (2016). Investigating the Opinions of Physical Education Teacher Candidates on the School Experience Course. Educational Research and Reviews, 11(17), 1634-1640.

Hargreaves, J., & Anderson, E. (Eds.). (2014). Routledge handbook of sport, gender and sexuality. Routledge.

Hargreaves, J. (2002). Sporting females: Critical issues in the history and sociology of women's sport. Routledge.

Hidalgo, T. and Almonacid, A. (2014). Gender stereotypes in physical education classes. Revista motricidad humana, 15(2), 86-95.

Islam, K. M. M., & Asadullah, M. N. (2018). Gender stereotypes and education: A comparative content analysis of Malaysian, Indonesian. Pakistani and Bangladeshi school textbooks. PloS one, 13(1).

Iversen, T., & Rosenbluth, F. (2010). Women, Work, and Politics: The Political Economy of Gender Inequality. Yale University Press.

Kalantari, B. (2012). The influence of social values and childhood socialization on occupational gender segregation and wage disparity. Public Personnel Management, 41(2), 241-255.

Kelly, D. M., Pomerantz, S., & Currie, D. (2005). Skater girlhood and emphasized femininity: ‘you can't land an ollie properly in heels’. Gender and Education, 17(3), 229-248.

Leaper, C., & Brown, C. S. (2008). Perceived experiences with sexism among adolescent girls. Child development, 79(3), 685-704.

Lentillon, V., Cogérino, G., & Kaestner, M. (2006). Injustice in physical education: gender and the perception of deprivation in grades and teacher support. Social Psychology of Education, 9(3), 321-339.

Lirgg, C. D. (1991). Gender differences in self-confidence in physical activity: A meta-analysis of recent studies. Journal of sport and exercise psychology, 13(3), 294-310.

McKenzie, T. L., Prochaska, J. J., Sallis, J. F., & LaMaster, K. J. (2004). Coeducational and single-sex physical education in middle schools: Impact on physical activity. Research Quarterly for exercise and sport, 75(4), 446-449.

Metcalfe, S. (2018). Adolescent constructions of gendered identities: The role of sport and (physical) education. Sport, Education and Society, 23(7), 681-693.

Nicaise, V., Bois, J. E., Fairclough, S. J., Amorose, A. J., & Cogérino, G. (2007). Girls' and boys' perceptions of physical education teachers' feedback: Effects on performance and psychological responses. Journal of sports sciences, 25(8), 915-926.

Papaioannou, A., Laparidis, K., Serbezis, B., Michalopoulou, M., Pylianidis, Th., Karypidis, A., Christodoulides, T., Kouli, O., Milousis, D., Siskos, B., (2003). 3rd grade physical education. Teacher's Book, 24-25. Metaixmio: Athens. [In Greek].

Papaioannou, A., Theodorakis, G., Goudas, M. (1999). For a better teaching of physical education, 71-99. Thessaloniki: Salto Publications. [In Greek].

Park, R. J., & Hult, J. S. (1993). Women as leaders in physical education and school-based sports, 1865 to the 1930s. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 64(3), 35-40.

Penney, D. (2002). Gender and physical education. Talking gender, 13-23.

Preece, S., & Bullingham, R. (2022). Gender stereotypes: The impact upon perceived roles and practice of in-service teachers in physical education. Sport, Education and Society, 27(3), 259-271.

Schippers, M. (2007). Recovering the feminine other: Masculinity, femininity, and gender hegemony. Theory and society, 36(1), 85-102.

Scraton, S. (2017). Equality, coeducation and physical education in secondary schooling. In Equality, Equity and Physical Education, 139-153. Routledge.

Sekhar, P. A., & Parameswari, J. (2020). Gender Stereotype in Education. Journal of Xi'an University of Architecture & Technology, 12(3), 4353-4369.

Shimon, J. (2005). Red Alert: gender equity issues in secondary physical education. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 76(7), 6-10.

Statistical Service of Cyprus (2017). Labour force survey. Cyprus: Statistical Service of Cyprus. [in Greek]

The Mediterranean games. (2019, CIJM). Mediterranean-Games. Accessed on 27.06.2022, Retrieved from https://cijm.org.gr/mediterranean-games/.

Trouilloud, D. O., Sarrazin, P. G., Martinek, T. J., & Guillet, E. (2002). The influence of teacher expectations on student achievement in physical education classes: Pygmalion revisited. European journal of social psychology, 32(5), 591-607.

Tsiakalos, G. (2002). The promise of pedagogy. Thessaloniki: Paratiritis. Published in Mary Kalantzis, Gella Varnava-Skoura and Bill Cope (Eds.) Learning for the Future, Common Ground Publishing, 23-30.

Tzikas, D. (1994). Primary Education and gender equality. In Education and Equality of Opportunity. Proceedings of a conference, Athens, Greece. [In Greek]

Waddington I., Malcolm D., Cobb J. (1998) Gender Stereotyping and Physical Education. European Physical Education Review.;4(1):34-46.

Wessel, K. (2005). Campus leaders: Why this gender discrepancy lessons. Florida League of Middle School Journal, 7(1), 16-19.

Wingrave, M. (2018). Perceptions of gender in early years. Gender and Education, 30(5), 587–606.

World Health Organization (WHO). International Council of Sport Science and Physical Education (ICSSPE).(2004). Girls’ Participation in Physical Activities and Sports: Benefits, Patterns, Influences and Ways Forward. Canterbury Christ Church University College, UK: Bailey, R., Wellard, I., & Dismore, H. Recuperado de.

Zaravigka, K., & Pantazis, V. (2012). Equality of the genders in physical education: The students' perceptions. Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 12(3), 350.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.46827/ejpe.v8i6.4404


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2022 Elena Avraam, Garyfallos Anagnostou

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Copyright © 2015 - 2023. European Journal of Physical Education and Sport Science (ISSN 2501 - 1235) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing Group. All rights reserved.

This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library (Biblioteca Nationala a Romaniei). All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms. All authors who send their manuscripts to this journal and whose articles are published on this journal retain full copyright of their articles. All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).