Batari Bambang, Susila Sukarno


The notion that “women are the weaker sex” is not true in the world of sport. For women like men can be competitive and aggressive without destroying ones natural beauty and charm. Sports participation is after all a worthwhile goal for women. The purpose of this study is to determine the perception on women’s sports participation while correlating to the type and degree of sports participation. It also determined the contributing factors of the moderating variables such as; father and mother’s educational attainment, family income, and institutional location. The study was conducted among the 973 randomly selected female Physical Education students of the three institutions; Mindanao State University, Marawi City; Mindanao State University-Iligan Institute of Technology, Iligan City; and Capitol University, Cagayan de Oro City. Descriptive-correlation method of research was used employing the Perception on Women’s Sports Participation Inventory (PWSPI) as the foremost tool in gathering the data. Results indicated that the variables of father and mother’s educational attainment and family income showed a significant correlation with the perception on women’s sports participation, while, institutional location was not significantly correlated. Significant correlation was also found between father, mother’s educational attainment, and institutional location towards the variable of the type of sports participation. However, family income showed no significant correlation to the type of sports participation. It was also found out that there was no significant correlation between mother’s educational attainment, family income, and institutional location towards the variable of the degree of sports participation. Significant correlation however, was found between father’s educational attainment and degree of sports participation. Perception on women’s sports participation was found to be significantly correlated towards the type and degree of sports participation. It was concluded further, that the relationships of the variables significantly contributed to the positive perception on women’s participation in sports.


Article visualizations:

Hit counter


Adler, P., & Kless, S. (1992). Socialization to gender roles: Popularity among elementary school boys and girls. Sociology of Education, 65, 169-187.

Atkinson, R. L. (1996). Introduction to psychology. 12th Ed. Harcourt Brace College Publisher.

Bennette, B. L., Howell, M. L., & Simri, U. (1983). Comparative physical education and sports. 2 nd Ed. Philadelphia, USA: Lea and Febiger.

Calderon, J. F., & Gonzales, E. (2004). Methods of research and thesis writing. Mandaluyong City, Philippines.

Coakley, J. (2001). Sport in society: Issues and controversies. 7th Ed. Singapore: McGraw-Hill Book Company.

Eitzen, D., & Sage, G. (1978). Sociology of american sport. Dubuque, IA: Wm. C. Brown Company Publishers.

Fasting, K. (1996). 40,000 Female runners: The grete waitz run-sport, culture, & counterculture. Paper presented to international pre-olympic scientific congress. Dallas.

Goldberg, A. D., & Chandler, T. J. L. (1991). Sport participation among adolescent girls: role conflict of multiple role? Sex Roles, 25, 213-224.

Hall, M. A. (1996). Feminism and sporting bodies: Essays on theory and practice. USA: Human Kinetics.

Hilgard, E. (1975). Introduction to psychology. 6th Ed. Quezon City: Philippines GMS Publishing Corp.

Kiovula, N. (1995). Ratings of gender appropriateness of sports participation: Effect of gender based schematic processing. Sex Roles, 33, 543-557.

Klafs, C. E., & Lyon, M. J. (1978). The female athlete: A coach’s guide to conditioning and training. Saint Louis, Missouri: The C.V. Mosby Company.

Learner’s Dictionary. (1985). An Intermediate Dictionary for Learners of English. Malaysia, W & R Chambers Ltd.

Lutter, J. M., & Jaffee, L. (1996). The bodywise woman. 2nd Ed. USA: Human Kinetics.

Metheny, E. (1965). Symbolic forms of movement: The feminine image in sports. Connotations of Movement in Sport, and Dance, 43-56.

Miller, J. L., & Levy, G. D. (1996). Gender role conflict, gender-typed characteristics, self-concepts, and sports socialization in female athletes and non-athletes. Sex Roles, 35, 111-122.

Nixon, H., Maresca, P., & Silverman, M. (1979). Sex differences in college students, acceptance of females in sport. Adolescence, 14, 755-764.

Sandoz, J., & Winans, J. (1999). Whatever it takes: Women on women’s sport. Published by Farrar, Strans & Giroux.

Webster’s. (1976). The New International Dictionary. Springfield, Massachusetts, USA G and C Meriam Company.



Copyright (c) 2016 Batari Bambang, Susila Sukarno

Copyright © 2015 - 2023. European Journal of Physical Education and Sport Science (ISSN 2501 - 1235) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing Group. All rights reserved.

This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library (Biblioteca Nationala a Romaniei). All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms. All authors who send their manuscripts to this journal and whose articles are published on this journal retain full copyright of their articles. All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).