Amadeus Clements, Jon Meyler


The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of English Football Association (FA) qualification level on coaches’ behaviours during soccer matches using a mixed methods approach. Coaches qualified by the FA at level 1 (n=5), level 2 (n=5), Union of European Football Associations B (UEFA B) (n=5) and UEFA A (n=5) agreed to participate. A grand total of 57,384 behaviours were recorded using the coach analysis intervention system and subsequently each coach was interviewed for a mean duration of 29±11 minutes. Level 1 and level 2 qualified coaches used convergent questions at a higher percentage of total behaviours in comparison to UEFA B and UEFA A licenced coaches (p<.05). UEFA A licenced coaches used scolds at a higher percentage of total behaviours when compared to level 1 qualified coaches (p<.05). Qualification level had no effect on coaches’ rationale for using the behaviours they did. Collectively, these results may indicate that coaches with higher qualifications have higher expectations of player’s performance. However, this effect could be attributed to performance standard differences, as highly qualified coaches tend to work with players who compete for teams of higher performance standard. 


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systematic observation, interpretive interviews, senior men's soccer coaches


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