Fatemeh Tabari, Elena Garayzabal Heinze, Adriana Sampaio


Background: Although there are numerous success records of Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) implementation in educational settings and its principles have been found effective, the impact of the whole educational methodology may be overrated. Method: A comprehensive search conducted to retrieve articles published between August 2005 and July 2016 using the scholarly databases. Results: We identified 102 potentially relevant articles of which only 6 met the inclusion criteria. Positive effect sizes in 5 studies indicated that the experimental group outperformed the control group. These effect sizes were analyzed separately to provide an interpretative context for the main results. High heterogeneity was observed (Q = 5, P < .001). The Chi-squared significance test shows that the distribution of effect sizes has heterogeneity. Likewise, I-squared statistic quantifies the heterogeneity on the data. Conclusion: Despite the positive feedbacks reported by researchers on the efficiency of such methodology applied in primary and secondary schools, it is occasionally admitted that the results of the study are in doubt as the participants of CLIL and non-CLIL groups do not have equal exposure to the foreign language. To compare both groups in the same conditions, it is necessary for both to receive the same number of instruction hours in L2.


Article visualizations:

Hit counter



content and language integrated learning, meta-analysis, critical appraisal, content, integrated learning

Full Text:



Admiraal, W., Westhoff, G. and de Bot, K. 2006, “Evaluation of bilingual secondary education in The Netherlands: students’ language proficiency in English”, Educational Research and Evaluation, 12:1, 75-93. doi:10.1080/13803610500392160

Agustín Llach, M.P. (2009a). The role of gender in lexical transfer in EFL written compositions across grades: a preliminary study. Paper presented at the 19th EUROSLA Conference, University College Cork, Ireland, September, 2-5, 2009.

Agustín Llach, M.P. (2009b). The role of Spanish L1 in the vocabulary use of content and non-content EFL learners. In Y. Ruiz de Zarobe, and R.M. Jiménez Catalán R.M. (Eds.), Content and Language Integrated Learning: Evidence from Research in Europe. (pp.112-129). Bristol: Multilingual Matters. doi:10.1111/j.1540-4781.2011.01188.

Airey, J. 2009, “Estimating undergraduate bilingual scientific Literacy in Sweden”. International CLIL Research Journal, 1:2, 26-35.

Alejo, R. and A. Piquer. (2010). ‘CLIL teacher training in Extremadura: A needs analysis perspective’ in D. Lasagabaster and Y. Ruiz de Zarobe (eds): CLIL in Spain. Implementation, Results and Teacher Training. Cambridge Scholars Publishing, pp. 219–42.

Alonso, E., Grisalena, J. and campo, A. (2008). “Plurilingual education in Secondary Schools: analysis of results”, International CLIL Research Journal, 1; 1, 36-49. doi:10.1093/elt/ccr056

Apsel, C. (2012). Coping with CLIL: dropouts from CLIL streams in Germany. International CLIL Research Journal 1, 4.

Baetens Beardsmore, H. (2002). ‘The significance of CLIL/EMILE’ in D. Marsh (ed.): CLIL/EMILE the European Dimension. University of Jyvaskyla pp. 24–6.

Baetens Beardsmore, H. (2008) Multilingualism, Cognition and Creativity. International CLIL Research Journal, 1:1, 4- 19.

Banegas, D. (2011). Content and language integrated learning in Argentina 2008-2011. Latin American Journal of Content and Language Integrated Learning, 4(2), 32-48. doi:10.5294/laclil.2011.4.2.4

Bereiter, C. (2002). Education and Mind in the Knowledge Age. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. doi:10.4324/9781410612182

Bernhardt, Markus (2011). Bilingualität und historisches Lernen. Förderung von historischen Kompetenzen oder soziales Differenzkriterium? In: Hodel, Jan / Ziegler, Béatrice (Hg.): Forschungswerkstatt Geschichtsdidaktik 09. Beiträge zur Tagung «geschichtsdidaktik empirisch 09». Bern 2011, pp. 214-223.

Bernhardt, Markus (2015). “Bilingual History classes – no, thanks!” In: Public History Weekly 3 22, doi:

Blakemore, S.J., and Frith, U. (2005). The learning brain: Lessons for education: a précis. Developmental Science, 8 (6), 459–465.

Breidbach, Stephan and Viebrock, Britta (2012) CLIL in Germany: Results from Recent Research in a Contested Field of Education. International CLIL Research Journal. Volume 1 (4): 6-16. doi:10.1111/j.1467-7687.2005.00434.

Brinton, D.M., Snow, M.A., and Wesche, M. (2003). Content-based second language instruction. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press. doi:10.1093/oxfordhb/9780195384253.013.0019

Bruton, A. (2011a). Are the differences between CLIL and non-CLIL groups in Andalusia due to CLIL? A reply to Lorenzo, Casal and Moore (2010). Applied Linguistics, 32(2), 236-241. doi:10.1093/applin/amr007

Bruton, A. (2011b). Is CLIL so beneficial, or just selective? Re-evaluating some of the research. System, 39(4), 1-10. doi:10.1016/j.system.2011.08.002

Bruton, A. (2013). CLIL: Some of the reasons why… and why not. System, 41: 587-597. doi:10.1016/j.system.2013.07.001

Bruton, A. (2015). CLIL: Detail matters in the whole picture. More than a reply to J. Hüttner and U. Smit (2014). System, 53, 119-128. doi:10.1016/j.system.2015.07.005. doi:10.1016/j.system.2015.07.005

Cabezas Cabello, J. M. 2010. A SWOT analysis of the Andalusian Plurilingualism Promotion Plan (APPP). Proceedings of the 23rd GRETA Convention, 83-91. M. L. Pérez Cañado (Ed.). Jaén: Joxman

Carless, D. R. (2003). Factors in the implementation of task-based teaching in primary schools. System, 31, 485−500. doi:10.1016/j.system.2003.03.002

Casal, S., Moore, P., (2009). The Andalusian bilingual sections scheme: evaluation and consultancy. International CLIL Research Journal 1 (2), 36e46.

Celaya, M. L. (2006). La producción de estructuras sintácticas en Inglés lengua extranjera en contexto AICLE y regular: estudio descriptivo. Paper presented at XXIV AESLA Conference. Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia (UNED), Madrid, March, 30 - April, 1.

Celaya, M.L. (2008). “I study natus in English”: lexical transfer in CLIL and regular learners”.In R. Monroy and A. Sánchez (eds.). 25 Years of Applied Linguistics in Spain: Milestones and Challenges. Murcia: Servicio de Publicaciones de la Universidad de Murcia.

Celaya, M. Luz and Ruiz de Zarobe, Yolanda (2010) First Language and Age in CLIL and NonCLIL Contexts. International CLIL Research Journal, 1(3), 60-66.

Cenoz, J., Genesee, F., and Gorter, D. (2013). Critical Analysis of CLIL: taking stock and looking forward. Applied Linguistics. Oxford University Press, 1– 21.Council of Europe (2001). Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Learning, Teaching and Assessment. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1093/applin/amt011

Chertkow, H., Whitehead, V., Phillips, N., Wolfson, C., Atherton, J., & Bergman, H. (2010). Multilingualism (but not always bilingualism) delays the onset of Alzheimer disease: evidence from a bilingual community. Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders, 24(2), 118–125. doi:10.1097/wad.0b013e3181ca1221

Coyle, D.; Hood, P.; Marsh, D. (2010). CLIL: Content and Language Integrated Learning. Cambridge University Press.

Coyle, D. (2008). CLIL—A pedagogical approach from the European perspective. In N. Van Deusen-Scholl and N. H. Hornberger (Eds.), Encyclopedia of language and education (2nd ed., Vol. 4: Second and Foreign Language Education, pp. 97-111). New York, NY: Springer. doi:10.1007/978-0-387-30424-3_92

Coyle, D. (2007a). ‘Towards a connected research agenda for CLIL pedagogies,’ The International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 10: 543–62.

Coyle, D. (2007b). ‘The CLIL quality change’ in D. Marsh and D. Wolff (eds): Diverse Contexts-Converging Goals: CLIL in Europe. Peter Lang, pp. 47–58.

Coyle, D. (2010). Foreword. In D. Lasagabaster and Y. Ruiz de Zarobe (Eds.) CLIL in Spain: Implementation, Results and Teacher Training (pp. vii-viii). Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.

Dale, L. and Tanner, R. (2012) “CLIL Activities” Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Dalton-Puffer, C., (2007). Discourse in Content and Language Integrated (CLIL) Classrooms. Language Learning & Language Teaching. doi:10.1075/lllt.20

John Benjamins, Amsterdam De Graaff, R. et al. (2007). “An Observation Tool for Effective L2 Pedagogy in Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL)”. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 10/5, 603-624.

Dalton-Puffer, C. (2007), Discourse in CLIL classrooms. Language Learning & Language Teaching. doi:10.1075/lllt.20

Dalton-Puffer, C. (2008), “Outcomes and processes in CLIL: current research from Europe”, in Delanoy, W. and Volkman, L. (eds), Future Perspectives for English Language Teaching, Heidelberg, Carl Winter.

Dalton-Puffer, C., Huttner, J. Schindelegger, V. and Smit, U. (2009). “Technology-Geeks speak out: what students think about vocational CLIL”. International CLIL Research Journal, 1; 2, 18-25.

Dalton-Puffer, C., Nikula, T. and Smit, U.: (2010). Charting policies, premises and research on Content and Language Integrated Learning, in C. Dalton-Puffer, T. Nikula and U. Smit (eds.), Language Use and Language Learning in CLIL Classrooms, (1-19). John Benjamins, Amsterdam. doi:10.1075/aals.7.01dal

Anne-Marie de Mejía (2002). Power, Prestige and Bilingualism: International Perspectives on Elite Bilingualism (= Bilingual Education & Bilingualism). Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. 322 pp., ISBN Pb 185359590X. doi:10.1558/sols.v5i1.151

Doiz, A., Lasagabaster, D., and Sierra, J. M. (2014). CLIL and motivation: The effect of individual and contextual variables. The Language Learning Journal, 42(2), 209-224. doi:10.1080/09571736.2014.889508

Duval S, Tweedie R. (2000a). Trim and fill: a simple funnel plot based method of adjusting for publication bias in meta-analysis. Biometrics.56: 455-463. doi:10.1111/j.0006-341x.2000.00455.x

Egger, M., Smith, G. D., Schneider, M., & Minder, C. (1997). Bias in meta-analysis detected by a simple, graphical test. British Medical Journal, 315, 629–634. doi:10.1136/bmj.315.7109.629

Ellis, E. (2003). Bilingualism among teachers of ESL: A study of second language learning experience as a contributor to the professional knowledge and Elizabeth Ellis 192 beliefs of teachers of ESL to adults. Unpublished PhD thesis, Griffith University, Brisbane.

Eurydice (2006b) National summary sheets on education systems in Europe and ongoing reforms: Finland. Directorate-General for Education and Culture, European Commission, July 2006. doi:10.7788/ijbe.2007.3334.1.227

Eurydice (2010), National system overviews on education systems in Europe and on-going reforms, 2010 Edition, Eurydice. doi:10.7788/ijbe.2007.3334.1.227

Fernández-Fontecha, A., (2014). Motivation and gender effect in receptive vocabulary learning: An exploratory analysis in CLIL primary education. Latin American Journal of Content and Language Integrated Learning, 7(2), 27-49. doi:10.5294/laclil.2014.7.2.2 eISSN 2322-9721

Gajo, L. 2007, “Linguistic knowledge and Subject knowledge: how does bilingualism contribute to subject development?” International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 10:5,563-581.

Fontecha AF, and Alonso AC (2012). A preliminary study on motivation and gender in CLIL and non- CLIL types of instruction. IJES, vol. 14 (1), 2014, pp. 21-36. doi:10.6018/ijes/14/1/156681

García Mayo, M.P. and A. Lázaro Ibarrola. 2005. “Pronouns revisited: Evidence from the morphosyntactic development of English as an L3”. In F. Garrudo Carabias and J. Comesaña (eds.) Estudios de Filología Inglesa en honor de Antonio Garnica Silva (pp. 217-228). Sevilla: Universidad de Sevilla.

Gené-Gil, M., Juan-Garau, M. y Salazar-Noguera, J. (2015). Writing development under CLIL provision. in Content-based language learning in multilingual educational environments, eds. M. Juan-Garau y J. Salazar-Noguera, 139-162. Berlin: Springer. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-11496-5_9

Gierlinger, E. M. (2007). The three pillar of modular CLIL: Findings from an Austrian research project. In D. Marsh and D. Wolff (Eds.), diverse contexts – converging goals. CLIL in Europe (pp. 211-226). Frankfurt: Peter Lang.

Gobierno de La Rioja. (2004). Convocatoria de Proyectos de Innovación Lingüística en Centros. Curso 2004/2004. Consejería de Educación, Cultura y Deporte. 19 May 2004.

Hellekjaer, G. O. 2004. Unprepared for English-medium instruction: A critical look at beginner students. Integrating content and language: Meeting the challenge of a multilingual higher education, 147-171. R. Wilkinson (Ed.). Maastricht: University of Maastricht. doi:10.1515/cercles-2013-0009

Harrop, E. (2012). Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL): Limitations and possibilities. Encuentro, 21, 57-70.

Heras, A and Lasagabaster D (2015). The impact of CLIL on affective factors and vocabulary learning. Language Teaching Research. Vol. 19(1) 70–88 doi:10.1177/1362168814541736

Hoare, P. (2000). Hoare' Content-based language teaching in China: contextual influence on implementation'. Multilingual Multicultural Dev., 31/1 (2010), pp. 69–86 doi:10.1080/01434630903367207

Hondris, G. I., S. Vlahavas, and Demetriadis.2007. ‘Negotiation of meaning and digital textbooks in the CLIL classroom’ in D. Marsh and D. Wolff (eds): Diverse Contexts-Converging Goals: CLIL in Europe. Peter Lang, pp. 319–330.

Hood, P. (2006). Unpublished data from research interviews with students at Tile Wood Hill Language College, Coventry, UK, in Coyle et al 2010, CLIL, Cambridge, CUP.

Hood, P. and Tobbutt, K. (2009). Modern languages in the primary school, London, SAGE. doi:10.4135/9781446269466

Hüttner, J.and Rieder-Bünemann, A., (2007). The effects of CLIL instruction on children’s narrative competence. Views 16 (3), 20e27.

Lasagabaster, D., 2008. Foreign language competence in content and language integrated courses. The Open Applied Linguistics Journal 1, 30e41 doi:10.2174/1874913500801010030

Jäppinen, A.-K. (2002) Ajattelu ja Sisältöjen Oppiminen Vieraskielisessä Opetuksessa. Raportti 1/3 [Thinking and Content Learning in Teaching through a Foreign Language. Report 1/3]. University of Jyväskylä. Jyväskylä: Jyväskylän yliopistopaino.

Jäppinen, A-K. (2005b). Cognitional Development of Mathematics and Science in the Finnish Mainstream Education in Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) – Teaching through a Foreign Language. Language and Education 19:2.

Jäppinen, A. (2005). Development and Structure of the Finnish Education System. Paper presented in the international conference Finland in PISA studies – Reasons behind the results. Helsinki.

Jäppinen, A. K. (2006). CLIL and future learning. In S. Björklund, K. MårdMiettinen, M. Bergström and M. Södergård (eds.), Exploring dual-focussed education. Integrating language and content for individual and societal needs (September 1st, 2013).

Jiménez, R. M. and Ojeda, J. (2008a). CLIL instruction and EFL learners’ productivity in an availability task. Paper presented at the International CLIL Conference: CLIL fusion multilingual mindsets in a multicultural world. Building quality learning communities. Tallin, Estonia, October, 24– 25.

Johnson, Jacqueline S. and Newport, Elissa L. (1989). Critical Period Effects in Second Language Learning: The Influence of Maturational State on the Acquisition of English as a Second Language. Cognitive Psychology, 21, 60-99. doi:10.1016/0010-0285(89)90003-0

Kaliaa V., Wilbournb M. P.and Ghio K. (2014) Better early or late? Examining the influence of age of exposure and language proficiency on executive function in early and late bilinguals. Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 26 (7). DOI: 10.1080/20445911.2014.956748

Kenney, J. M., Hancewicz, E., Heuer, L., Metsisto, D., and Tuttle, C. L. (2005). Literacy strategies for improving mathematics instruction. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Kirkgoz, Y. (2007). English language teaching in Turkey: Policy changes and their implementation. Regional Language Centre Journal, 38: 216-228. doi:10.1177/0033688207079696

Krashen, S. (1982) Newmark's "Ignorance Hypothesis" and current second language acquisition theory. Unpublished manuscript.

Krechel, L.: (1999). Sprach- und Textarbeit im Rahmen von flexiblen bilingualen Modulen. Zeitschrift für Interkulturellen Fremdsprachenunterricht. [online]

Kukkonen P. (2006). Toward a working theory for physics CLIL classroom. Exploring Dual-Focussed Education, 147-157.

Lamsfuss-Schenk, S., (2008). Fremdverstehen im bilingualen Geschichtsunterricht: Eine Fallstudie, Peter Lang, Frankfurt am Main

Lasagabaster, D. (2008). Foreign Language competence in CLIL courses. The Open Applied Linguistics Journal, 1, 31- 42.

Lasagabaster, D. and J. M. Sierra. 2009. ‘Language attitudes in CLIL and traditional EFL classes’. International CLIL Research Journal 2/1: 4–17.

Lasagabaster, D., and J.M. Sierra. (2010). Immersion and CLIL in English: More differences than similarities. ELT Journal 64, no. 4: 367-75. doi:10.1093/elt/ccp082

Lasagabaster, D. (2011). English achievement and student motivation in CLIL and EFL settings. Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching, 5, 3–18. doi:10.1080/17501229.2010.519030

Lightbrown, P. and Spada, N. (2006) How Languages are Learned, Oxford, OUP.

Lorenzo, F. (2008) Instructional discourse in bilingual settings: an empirical study of linguistic adjustments in CLIL? Language Learning Journal, 36;1,21-23 doi:10.1080/09571730801988470

Lin, A. and Man E (2009). Bilingual Education: Southeast Asian Perspectives, Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.

Lorenzo, F.; Hengst, H.; Hernández, H.; Pavón, V. (2005). Borrador para la elaboración del Currículo Integrado, Plan to Promote Multilingualism, Junta de Andalucía. Retrieved November 22, 2012, from the World Wide Web:

Lorenzo, F.; Casal, S.; de Alba y Moore P. (eds.) (2007) Models and Practice in Content and Language Integrated Learning. RESLA. Revista Española de Lingüística Aplicada, vol. 20. Número monográfico.

Lorenzo, F. (2007). An analytical framework of language integration in L2 content-based courses. Language and Education 21: 502-513. doi:10.2167/le708.0

Lorenzo, F. (2008). Instructional discourse in bilingual settings: an empirical study of linguistic adjustments in CLIL. Language Learning Journal, 36;1,21-23 doi:10.1080/09571730801988470

Lorenzo, F., (2010). CLIL in Andalusia. In: Lasagabaster, D., Ruiz de Zarobe, Y. (Eds.), CLIL in Spain: Implementation, Results and Teacher Training. Cambridge Scholars Publishers, Newcastle, pp. 2e11. doi:10.1093/elt/ccr056

Lorenzo, F., Casal, S., Moore, P., (2010). The effects of content and language integrated learning in European education: key findings from the Andalusian sections evaluation project. Applied Linguistics, 31, 418e442. doi:10.1093/applin/amp041

Lucietto, S., 2008. A model for quality CLIL provision. International CLIL Research Journal 1 (1), 83e92.

Lyster, R. (2007). Content and Language integrated teaching: a counterbalanced approach, John Benjamin, Amsterdam. doi.:10.1111/j.1540-4781.2009.00870_6

Macdonald C. and Moodie P. (2006). Language, textbooks and science content learning in South African schools – the case of the Science for All Project. Exploring Dual-Focussed Education, 158-175.

Makropoulos. (2010). Students' attitudes to the secondary French immersion curriculum in a Canadian context. Language, Culture and Curriculum, 23(1), 1-13. doi:10.1080/07908310903494525

Manzano, B. (2014). Lexical Transfer in the Written Production of a CLIL Group and a Non-CLIL Group. International Journal of English Studies, 14(2), 57-76. doi:10.6018/j.166251

Marsh D. and Langé, G. (Eds.). (2000). Using languages to learn and learning to use languages. Finland: University of Jyväskylä.

Marsh, David (2000): An Introduction to CLIL for Parents and Young People in Ten Languages. In David Marsh and Gisella Langé, eds. Using Languages to Learn and Learning to Use languages. Jyväskylä: u of Jyväskylä.

Marsh, K.T. Hau, C.K. Kong' (2000) Late immersion and language of instruction in Hong Kong high schools: achievement growth in language and non-language subjects' Harv. Educ. Rev., 70 (2000), pp. 302–346 doi:10.17763/haer.70.3.gm047588386655k5

Marsh, D (Ed) (2002) CLIL/EMILE- The European Dimension: Actions, Trends and Foresight Potential Public Services Contract DG EAC: European Commission

Marsh, D. (2002). CLIL/EMILE: The European dimension; Actions, trends and foresight potential. Jyväskylä (Finland): UniCOM, Continuing Education Centre, University of Jyväskylä.

Marsh, D. (2002). CLIL/EMILE – The European Dimension. Actions, Trends and Foresight Potential, Strasbourg, European Commission.

Marsh, David (2008). Language Awareness and CLIL. J. Cenoz, N.H. Hornberger (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Language and Education. Knowledge about Language (pp.233-246). II edition, Volume 6, Springer Science and Business Media LLC, New York doi:10.1007/springerreference_60061

Marsh, David (2008). CLIL in primary East Asia Contexts: Primary Innovations in EastAsia: Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, Philippines. British Council, East Asia. Bangkok: British Council.

Mehisto, P. (2007). What a school needs to consider before launching a CLIL programme: the Estonian Experience. In D. Marsh and D. Wolff (eds.) Diverse Contexts, Converging Goals: CLIL in Europe. Frankfurt: Peter Lang. 61–78.

Mehisto, P., (2008). CLIL counterweights: recognizing and decreasing disjuncture in CLIL. International CLIL Research Journal 1 (1), 93e119.

Mehisto, Peeter, Marsh, David, Frigols Maria Jesús (2008): Uncovering CLIL: Content and Language Integrated Learning in Bilingual and Multilingual Education. Oxford: Macmillan.

Mehisto, P. and Marsh, D. (2011). “Approaching the Economic, Cognitive and Health benefits of Bilingualism: Fuel for CLIL”, in Y. Ruiz de Zarobe, J. Sierra and F. Gallardo del Puerto (eds.). Content and Foreign Language Integrated Learning. Bern: Peter Lang, 21-48.

Mentz, O. (2010). Alle Sprachen eignen sich – oder doch nicht? Überlegungen zu einem bilingualen Fächerkanon. In: Doff, S. (ed.) Bilingualer Unterricht in der Sekundarstufe. Eine Einführung, (29-43). Narr, Tübingen.

Met. M. (1998). Curriculum decision-making in content-based language teaching. In J. Cenoz and F. Genesee (Eds). Beyond Bilingualism: Multilingualism and Multilingual Education (pp. 35-63). Clevedon, Eng.: Multilingual Matters. doi:10.2307/417241

Muñoz, C. (2006) Influence translinguistique et changement de code dans la production d'une L4. Acquisition et Interaction en Langue Étrangère (AILE), 24, 75-99.

Muñoz C. (2006a). The effects of age on foreign language learning: The BAF Project. In C. Muñoz (ed.), Age and the rate of foreign language learning. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters, 1-40.

Muñoz C. (ed.) (2006b). Age and the rate of foreign language learning. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.

Muñoz C. (2008). Symmetries and asymmetries of age effects in naturalistic and instructed L2 learning. Applied Linguistics 24/4: 578-596. doi:10.1093/applin/amm056

Murtagh, L. (2007). Out-of-school use of Irish, motivation to learn the language and proficiency in immersion and subject-only post-Primary programmes. International Journal of Bilingualism and Bilingual Education, 10(4), 428–453. doi:10.2167/beb453.0

Naves, T., and Victori, M. (2010). CLIL in Catalonia: An overview of research studies. In D. Lasagabaster and Y. Ruiz de Zarobe (eds.), CLIL in Spain, Implementation, Results and Teacher Training (p. 30-54). Cambridge: Cambridge Scholars. doi:10.1093/elt/ccr056

Netten, J., Germain, C., 2009. The future of intensive French. Canadian Modern Language Review 65, 757e786. doi:10.3138/cmlr.65.5.757

Nikolov, M. and Mihaljevi´c Djigunovi´c, J. (2006) Recent research on age, second language acquisition and early foreign language learnng. ARAL 26, 234–260 doi:10.1017/s0267190506000122

Nonaka, I. and D. Teece (Eds) (2001). Managing Industrial Knowledge. Creation, Transfer and Utilization. London: SAGE Publications Ltd.

Orafi, S. and Borg, S. (2009) Intentions and realities in implementing communicative curriculum reform. System, 37, 243-253 doi:10.1016/j.system.2008.11.004

Pavón Vázquez, V. and Gaustad, M. (2013) Designing bilingual programmes for higher education in Spain: Organisational, curricular and methodological decisions. International CLIL Research Journal, 2 (1), 82-94

Pavón Vázquez, V. and Ellison, M. (2013) Examining teacher roles and competences in content and language integrated learning (CLIL). LINGVARVMARENA, 4, 65-78.

Pérez-Vidal, C. (2002). “Spain”, in M. Grenfell (ed.) Modern Languages across the Curriculum. London and New York: Routledge/ Falmer, 114-130.

Pérez Cañado, M. L. 2012. “CLIL research in Europe: Past, present, and future”. International. Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism 15(3): 315-341. doi:10.1080/13670050.2011.630064

Pérez-Vidal, C. and Juan-Garau, M. (2010). To CLIL or not to CLIL? From bilingualism to multilingualism in Catalan/Spanish communities in Spain. In Y. Ruiz de Zarobe and D. Lasagabaster (Eds.), CLIL in Spain: Implementation, Results and Teacher Training (pp. 115-138). Newcastle Upon-Tyne, United

Scardamalia, M. (2001). Getting Real About 21st Century Education. The Journal of Educational Change 2, 171–176.

Schroeder, S.R., & Marian, V. (2016). Cognitive consequences of trilingualism. International Journal of Bilingualism June 25, 2016 doi: 10.1177/1367006916637288 doi:10.1177/1367006916637288

Stehr, N. (2001). Modern Societies as Knowledge Societies. In: Handbook of Social Theory, 494–508. Eds G. Ritzer and B. Smart. Lontoo: Sage Publications. doi:10.4135/9781446215548.n2

Ting, Yen-Ling Teresa (2010): CLIL appeals to how the brain likes its information: examples from CLIL-(Neuro) Science, In: International CLIL Research Journal 1/3, 1–18. URL: (Retrieved July 17, 2011)

Kingdom: Cambridge Scholars Publishing. doi:10.1093/elt/ccr056

Rothman, J. and Guijarro-Furntes. (2010). Input Quality Matters: Some Comments on Input Type and Age-Effects in Adult SLA. Applied Linguistics 31, (2). pp. 301-306. doi:10.1093/applin/amq004

Ruiz de Zarobe, Y. (2007). CLIL in a bilingual community: similarities and differences with learning English as a foreign language. View[z] 16 (3), 47e52.

Ruiz de Zarobe, Y. and Jimenez Catalan, R.M. (eds.) (2009) CLIL: evidence from research in Europe, Bristol, Multilingual Matters.

Ruiz de Zarobe, Y., Lasagabaster, D., (2010). CLIL in a bilingual community: the basque autonomous community. In: Lasagabaster, D., Ruiz de Zarobe, Y. (Eds.), CLIL in Spain: Implementation, Results and Teacher Training. Cambridge Scholars Publishing, Newcastle, pp. 12e29. doi:10.1093/elt/ccr056

Rymarczik, J.: (2003). Kunst auf Englisch. Ein Plädoyer für die Erweiterung des bilingualen Sachfachkanons. Langenscheidt-Longman, München.

San Isidro, X., 2010. An insight into Galician CLIL: provision and results. In: Lasagabaster, D., Ruiz de Zarobe, Y. (Eds.), CLIL in Spain: Implementation, Results and Teacher Training. Cambridge Scholars Publishing, Newcastle, pp. 55e78. doi:10.1093/elt/ccr056

Schwartz, J. L., and Kenney, J. M. (1995). Assessing mathematical understanding and skills effectively. Interim report of the Balanced Assessment Program, Harvard Graduate School of Education, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Serra, C. (2007), “Assessing CLIL at Primary School: a longitudinal study”, International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 10:5,582-602.

Seikkula-Leino, J. (2007). CLIL learning: Achievement levels and affective factors. Language and Education 21: 328-341. doi:10.2167/le635.0

Smit, U. (2010). CLIL in an English as a lingua franca classroom: on explaining terms and expressions interactively. In C. Dalton-Puffer, T. Nikula, and U. Smit (Eds.), Language use and language learning in CLIL classrooms (pp. 259-278). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. doi:10.1075/aals.7.13smi

Smith, K. (2005), «Is this the end of the language class? », Guardian Weekly, January 21, 2005. Available at: story/0,15085,1394830,00.html.

Simões, A.R., Pinho, A.S., Costa, A.M. and Costa, A.R. (2013). The Project English Plus: a CLIL approach in a Portuguese school. Indagatio Didactica, 5 (4), 30-51

Sterne, J. A. C., Becker, B. J., & Egger, M. (2005). The funnel plot. In H. R. Rothstein, A. J. Sutton, & M. Borenstein (Eds.), Publication bias in meta-analysis: Prevention, assessments, and adjustments (pp. 75–98). West Sussex, England: John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.

Sterne, J. A. C., & Egger, M. (2005). Regression methods to detect publication and other bias in meta-analysis. In H. R. Rothstein, A. J. Sutton, & M. Borenstein (Eds.), Publication bias in meta-analysis: Prevention, assessments, and adjustments (pp 99–110). West Sussex, England: John Wiley and Sons, Ltd. doi:10.1002/0470870168.ch6

Sterne JA, Gavaghan D, Egger M: Publication and related bias in meta-analysis: power of statistical tests and prevalence in the literature. J Clin Epidemiol. (2000), 53: 1119-1129. 10.1016/S0895-4356(00)00242-0.

Swain, M. and Lapkin, S. (2005). “The evolving socio-political context of immersion education in Canada: some implications for programme development”, International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 15:2, 169-186. doi:10.1111/j.1473-4192.2005.00086.x

Tedick, D. J. and L. Cammarata (2012). Content and Language Integration in K–12 Contexts: Student Outcomes Teacher Practices, and Stakeholder Perspectives. Foreign Language Annals 45(S1), S28-S53. doi:10.1111/j.1944-9720.2012.01178.x

Thornton A, Lee P: Publication bias in meta-analysis: its causes and consequences. J Clin Epidemiol. (2000). 53: 207-216. 10.1016/S0895-4356(99)00161-4. doi:10.1016/s0895-4356(99)00161-4

Van de Craen, P.; Lochtman K.; Ceuleers, E.; Mondt, K.; Allain, L. (2007a). “An interdisciplinary approach to CLIL learning in primary schools in Brussels”. In DaltonPuffer, C.; Smit, U. (eds.). Empirical Perspectives on CLIL Classroom Discourse. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang, 253-274. doi:10.3726/978-3-653-01829-5/11

Van de Craen, P.; Ceuleers, E.; Mondt, K.; (2007b). “Cognitive development and bilingualism in primary schools: teaching maths in a CLIL environment”. In Marsh, D.; Wolff, D. (eds.). Diverse Contexts – Converging Goals. CLIL in Europe. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang, 185-200.

Várkuti' A. (2010). Linguistic benefits of the CLIL approach: measuring linguistic competences'Int. CLIL Res. J., 1/3 (2010), pp. 67–79

Vázquez BM (2014). Lexical transfer in the written production of a CLIL group and a non-CLIL group. IJES, vol. 14 (2), 2014, pp. 57-76 doi:10.6018/j.166251

Villarreal Olaizola, I. and García Mayo, M.P. (2009) Tense and agreement morphology in

the interlanguage of Basque/Spanish Bilinguals: CLIL vs. non-CLIL. In Y. Ruiz de Zarobe and R. M. Jiménez Catalan (eds.), Content and Language Integrated Learning: Evidence from Research in Europe (pp. 157-175) doi:10.1111/j.1540-4781.2011.01188.x

Krogh, G., K. Ichijo and I. Nonaka (2000). Enabling Knowledge Creation. How to Unlock the Mystery of Tacit Knowledge and Release the Power of Innovation. Oxford: University Press

Wesche, Marjorie Bingham. (2002). Early French Immersion: How has the original Canadian model stood the test of time? In: Petra Burmeister, Thorsten Piske and Andreas Rohde (eds.) 2002. An integrated view of language development. Papers in honour of Henning Wode. Trier: Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Trier, 357-379.


Wiesemes, R. (2009). Developing theories and practices in CLIL: CLIL as post-method pedagogies. In Content and Language Integrated Learning: Evidence from research in Europe, eds. Y.R. De Zarobe, and R.M.J. Catalán, 41-62. Bristol: Multilingual Matters.

Wilhelmer, Nadja. (2010). Content and language integrated learning (CLIL) in the mathematical setting. VIEWS 19 (3): 97-10.

Witzigmann, S.: (2011). Bildende Kunst in der Zielsprache Französisch als Einstieg ins bilinguale Lernen und Lehren. Explorative Studie einer fünften Realschulklasse. Peter Lang, Frankfurt am Main.

Vez, J.M. (2007). De políticas (y politiquillas) del EEES y competencias idiomáticas en el grado de maestro. Lenguaje y Textos 25: 13-42.

Zydati, W. (2012). Linguistic thresholds in the CLIL classroom? the threshold hypothesis revisited. Int. CLIL Res. J., 1/4 Retrieved:


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright © 2015. European Journal of Foreign Language Teaching (ISSN 2537-1754) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing GroupAll rights reserved.

This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library (Biblioteca Nationala a Romaniei). All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms.

All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).