NEEDS ANALYSIS AND ASSESSMENT OF GRAMMAR STRUCTURES NEEDED BY GERMAN TEACHER CANDIDATES IN LANGUAGE USE PROCESS

Fatma Karaman

Abstract


The aim of grammar teaching in foreign language learning process is to teach the foreign language itself rather than the formal features of the language by ensuring the use of target language. However, German grammar courses in Turkey provide intensive training on grammar subjects. The textbooks also contain a very detailed list of grammatical subjects and terms. Therefore, in order to communicate in a language, it is not necessary to know all the phonological, semantic and syntactic features of the language in detail. In this context, the aim of this study is to determine the linguistic structures that pre-service German teachers need to use German effectively in four basic language skills and to determine the frequency of their use. In addition, it was investigated whether the linguistic structure needs were met with the resources they used in the course, for what skills they needed to use grammatical structures the most, whether they needed the subjects they studied in the grammar class in real life language use situations, and whether there were any grammar subjects they found unnecessary to teach. It was also examined whether these needs differed according to the class level and the variables of being born and growing up abroad. For this purpose, two measuring instruments, grammatical structure usage frequency questionnaire form and grammatical structure need analysis structured interview form prepared by the researcher were used. As a result of the research, it was determined that the prospective German teachers almost never use structures such as das Perfekt der Modalverben, das Futur II, konzessive, konsekutive, modale Nebensätze, Finalsätze, Interrogativsätze, Zustandpassiv. According to these findings, the grammatical structures needed by German pre-service teachers to use the language effectively were sorted according to their importance and priorities in line with the opinions of pre-service teachers and the structures used at high, middle and low levels were grouped. In order to improve the grammar teaching process, suggestions were made to give priority to subjects needed in order to develop communicative skills instead of the subjects not used in daily life in grammar books.

Yabancı dil öğrenim sürecinde dilbilgisi öğretimindeki amaç dilin kullanımını sağlayarak aslında dilin biçimsel özelliklerinden ziyade yabancı dilin kendisini öğretmektir. Ancak Türkiye’de Almanca dilbilgisi derslerinde yoğun bir dilbilgisel konu öğretimi söz konusudur. Ders kitaplarında da aynı şekilde çok detaylı olarak dilbilgisel konuların ve terimlerin bir listesi yer almaktadır. Dolayısıyla bir dilde iletişim kurabilmek için söz konusu dilin ayrıntılı olarak fonolojik, semantik ve sözdizimsel bütün özelliklerini bilmek gerekli değildir. Bu bağlamda bu çalışmanın amacı Almanca öğretmen adaylarının Almancayı dört temel dil becerilerinde etkin bir biçimde kullanabilmek için ihtiyaç duydukları dilsel yapıları belirleyerek söz konusu yapıları ne sıklıkta kullandıklarına ilişkin bir durum tespiti yapmaktır. Bunun yanında söz konusu dilsel yapı ihtiyaçlarının derste kullandıkları kaynaklarla karşılanıp karşılanmadığı, en çok hangi becerilerde dilbilgisel yapıları kullanmaya ihtiyaç duydukları, dilbilgisi dersinde gördükleri konulara gerçek hayattaki dil kullanım durumlarında ihtiyaç duyup duymadıkları, öğretilmesini gereksiz gördükleri dilbilgisi konularının olup olmadığı araştırılmıştır. Bu ihtiyaçların sınıf düzeyine, yurt dışında doğup büyüme değişkenlerine göre farklılık gösterip göstermediği de incelenmiştir. Bu amaç doğrultusunda araştırmacı tarafından hazırlanan dilbilgisel yapı kullanım sıklığı anket formu ve dilbilgisel yapı ihtiyaç analizi yapılandırılmış görüşme formu olmak üzere iki ölçme aracı kullanılmıştır. Araştırma sonucunda Almanca öğretmen adaylarının das Perfekt der Modalverben, das Futur II, konzessive, konsekutive, modale Nebensätze, Finalsätze, Interrogativsätze, Zustandpassiv gibi yapıları neredeyse hiç kullanmadığı tespit edilmiştir. Elde edilen bulgulara göre Almanca öğretmen adaylarının dili etkin bir şekilde kullanabilmesine yönelik ihtiyaç duyduğu dilbilgisel yapılar öğretmen adaylarının görüşleri doğrultusunda önem ve önceliklerine göre sıralanarak yüksek, orta ve düşük düzeylerde kullanılan yapılar gruplandırılmıştır. Dilbilgisi öğretim sürecini iyileştirmek için dilbilgisi kitaplarında günlük hayatta kullanılmayan konuların yerine iletişimsel yetinin geliştirilmesi amacıyla ihtiyaç duyulan konulara öncelik verilmesi gibi önerilerde bulunulmuştur.

 

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foreign language teaching, German grammar, needs analysis, four basic language skills / yabancı dil öğretimi, Almanca dilbilgisi, ihtiyaç analizi, dört temel dil becerileri

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References


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