Srabani Mallik


Motivation plays a significant role in the rate and success of second and foreign language learning in general, and in classroom language learning in particular. This paper overviews research on motivation as a promoting determinant in second and foreign language classroom and deals with the meaning of motivation, theories of motivation and explains how teachers can generate and maintain motivation in second language classroom. Research on motivation for second language learning has shown that teachers should be aware of their actions and behaviours in classroom because it is very likely that teachers’ actions can demotivate learners.


Article visualizations:

Hit counter



intrinsic/extrinsic motivation, instrumental/integrative motivation, SLA (Second Language Acquisition), EFL (English as a Foreign Language)/ESL (English as a Second Language)


Ajibade, Y., & Ndububa, K., 2008. Effects of word games, culturally relevant songs, and stories on students’ motivation in a Nigerian English language class. TESL Canada Journal/ Revue TESL de Canada, 25(2), 27-48.

Benson, P., 2010. Teaching and researching autonomy in language learning (2nd ed.).London, UK: Longman.

Brown, H. D., 1990. M&Ms for language classrooms? Another look at motivation. In J. E. Alatis (ed.), Georgetown University round table on language and linguistics 1990, 383-93.

Brown, H. D., 1994. Teaching by Principles. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Chen, J. F., Warden, C. A., & Chang, H. T., 2005. Motivators that do not motivate: The case of Chinese EFL learners and the influence of culture on motivation. TESOL Quarterly, 39(4), 609-633.

Clement, R., & Kruidenier, B. G., 1983. Orientations in second language acquisition: The effects of ethnicity, milieu and target language on their emergence. Language Learning 33,273-32.

Cortazzi, M., & Jin, L., 1999. Cultural mirrors: Materials and methods in the EFL classroom. In E. Hinkel (Ed.), Culture in second language teaching and learning (pp. 196-219). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

Deci, E. L. & Ryan, R. M., 1985. Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behaviour. New York: Plenum.

Deci, E. L.,Vallerand, R. J., Pelletier, L. G. & Ryan, R. M., 1991. Motivation and education: the self-determination perspective. Educational Psychologist, 26,325-46.

Dickinson, L., 1995. Autonomy and motivation: a literature review. System, 23,165-74.

Dörnyei, Z., 1994. Motivation and motivating in the foreign language classroom. The Modern Language Journal, 78(3), 273-284.,

Dörnyei, Z., 1997a. Motivational factors in second language attainment: a review of research in Hungary. Acta Linguistica Hungarica, 44,261-75.

Dörnyei, Z., 1997b. Psychological processes in cooperative language learning: group dynamics and motivation. Modern Language Journal, 81,482-93.

Dörnyei, Z., 1998. Motivation in second and foreign language learning. Language Teaching. 31, 117-135. doi: 10. 1017/S026144480001315X.

Dörnyei, Z., & Csizér, K. “Ten commandments for motivating language learners: results of an empirical study”. Language Teaching Research. (1998), 2(3), 203-229.

Dörnyei, Z., 2001(a). Motivational Strategies in the Language Classroom. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Dörnyei, Z., 2001(b). Teaching and Researching Motivation. Harlow, England, United Kindgom: Longman.

Dörnyei, Z., 2001(c). Motivational Strategies in the Language Classroom. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

Dörnyei, Z., 2003. Attitudes, orientations, and motivations in language learning: Advances in theory, research, and applications. Language Learning, 53, 3-32.

Dörnyei, Z., & Ushioda, E., 2011. Teaching and researching motivation (2nd ed.). Harlow, England: Pearson Longman.

Dörnyei, Z., Clément, R., 2001. Motivational characteristics of learning different target languages: Results of a nationwide survey. In Z. Dörnyei & R. Schmidt (Eds.), Motivation and second language acquisition (pp. 399-432). Honolulu, HI: Second Language Teaching & Curriculum Center, University of Hawaii.

Ellis, R., 1994. The Study of Second Language Acquisition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Gardner, R. C., & Lambert, W. E., 1972. Attitudes and motivation in second–language learning. Rowley, MA: Newbury House.

Gardner, R.C., 1985. Social Psychology and Second Language Learning: The Role of Attitudes and Motivation, London, England: Edward Arnold.

Guilloteaux, M. J., & Dörnyei, Z, “Motivating Language Learners: A Classroom–oriented Investigation of the Effects of Motivational Strategies on Student Motivation. TESOL Quarterly,(2008) 42(1), 55-77.

Julkunen, K., 2001. Situation and task specific motivation in foreign language learning. In Z. Dornyei & R. Schmidt (Ed.s), Motivation and Second Language Acquisition (pp. 29-43). Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii Press.

Lamb, M., 2007. The impact of school on EFL learning motivation: An Indonesian case study. TESOL Quarterly, 41(4), 757-780.

Little, D., 1991. Learner autonomy: Definitions, issues and problems. Dublin, IR: Authentik.

Liu, M., 2007. Chinese students’ motivation to learn English at the tertiary level. Asian EFL Journal, 9(1), 126-146. Retrieved from

Pintrich, P. L., & Schunk, D. H., 1996. Motivation in education: theory, research, and applications. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Rahman, S., 2005. Orientations and motivation in English language learning: A study of Bangladeshi students at undergraduate level. Asian EFL Journal, 7(1), 1-25. Retrieved from

Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L., 2000. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivations: Classic definitions and new directions. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 25(1), 54-67.

Slavin, R., 2003. Educational psychology: Theory and practice (7th ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.

Ushioda, E., 1996b. Learner autonomy 5: the role of motivation. Dublin: Authentik.

Warden, C. A. & Lin, H. J., 2000. Existence of integrative motivation in an Asian EFL setting. Foreign Language Annals, 33(5), 535–547.

Williams, M., 1994. Motivation in Foreign and Second Language Learning: An Interactive Perspective. Educational and Child Psychology, 11,77-84.

Wlodkowski, 1984. Enhancing adult motivation to learn. San Francisco, CA: Jossey Bass.

Wu, W. C. V., & Wu, P. H. N., 2008. Creating and authentic EFL learning environment to enhance student motivation to study English. Asian EFL Journal, 10(4), 211-226. Retrieved from



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright © 2015 - 2023. European Journal of Foreign Language Teaching (ISSN 2537-1754) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing GroupAll rights reserved.

This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library (Biblioteca Nationala a Romaniei). All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms.

All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).