Leopard Jacob Mwalongo


This study intended to examine the language used in cheating in higher learning education examinations. The study specifically sought: to explore the body language used during cheating in examination; identify reasons for choice of the body languages in cheating during examination; to identify linguistic expression used to facilitate cheating in examinations. The study used both qualitative and quantitative approaches. The researcher used random sampling to obtain the sample. The study involved 350 students from Dar es Salaam regional centers of the Open University of Tanzania (OUT). The instrument used for data collection was the questionnaire. The data were analyzed through SPSS 16 version. The study found that; the most used forms body language in cheating during examination are facial expression (81.4%) and hand-finger gestures (62.3%). However, majority of the students rated high on the positioning of the invigilator (91.1%), number of invigilators during invigilation (80.0%). And the angle one sat (57.7%) as reasons for the choice of body language in cheating during examination. Further, students gave linguistic expressions of body language in cheating like: “attention” (eye brow movement), “ready to help someone” (head movement up –down), “I don’t know” (body posture- up- down shoulder movement or right left of the head) “wait” (up and down of the hand palm). It can be said that, cheating during examination is obvious; use of certain body language depends on the needs and intention of the cheating student in cheating. It is recommended that the invigilator should be keen when invigilating, and the institution has to send their invigilators for short course on language use in educational context especially during examination and techniques used in cheating for quality education.


Article visualizations:

Hit counter



language, academic cheating, body language, linguistic expression, educational examination, Open University of Tanzania (OUT)


Ali, A. S. M. (2011). The use of non-verbal communication in the classroom. A paper presented in 1st International Conference on Foreign Language teaching and applied Linguistic Tabuk University

Andersen, P.A. (1999). Nonverbal communication: Forms and functions. Mountain View, CA: Mayfield Publishing Co.

Bertram Gallant, T., & Drinan, P. (2006). Institutionalizing academic Integrity: Administrator perceptions and institutional actions. NASPA Journal, 43 (4), 61-81

Chinamasa, E., Maphosa, C., Mavuru, L., Tarambawamwe, (2011). Examinations Cheating: Exploring Strategies and Contributing Factors in Five Universities in Zimbabwe. Journal of Innovative Research in Education, 1(1). Global Research Publishing. Nigeria.

Cizek, G. J. (2004). Cheating in academics. In C. Spielberger (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Applied Psychology (pp.307-311). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Cohen, L and Felson, M. (1979). Social Change and crime rate trend. American Sociological Review, 44,588-608.

Faucher, D (2007). Academic Dishonesty. Apollo College

Fast, J. (1977). The Body Language of Sex Power and Aggression. M. Evans and Company Ince. New York.

Hyland, J.S, Bourin, W.C, De Lisle. J. (2011). “A little Leaven Corrupted The whole lump”: Academic As a high hindrance to achieving quality in higher education. Educational Research. Association. Carribbean.

Kitahara, R., Westfall, F., & Mankelwicz, J. (2011). New, multi-faceted hybrid approaches to ensuring academic integrity. Journal of Academic and Business Ethics, 3. Retrieved from

Ravasco, G.G (2012). “Technology-Aided Cheating in Open and Distance –e-learning”. In the Asian Journal of Distance Education University of Philippines Open University, Philippines, Vol 10, No 2, pp71-77.

MEGEP (2008). In Ozuorcun, F. (2013). The importance of Body Language in Intercultural Communication. In UEL Journal of Social Sciences. Vol.3 IV:11, Aralik.

Lambert, E.G., Hogan, N.C., & Barton, S.M. (2003). Collegiate academic dishonesty revisited: What have they done, how often have they done it, who does it, and why did they do it. Electronic Journal of Sociology.

Ozuorcun. F. The Importance of Body language in Intracultural Communication. In EUL journal Of Social Sciences: IV: 11). Aralik.

Ramorola, M.Z (2012). Cheating in Summative Assessment in an ODL Education Programme. A case study of an Undergraduate Qualification. University of South Africa

Schab, F. (1991). Schooling without learning. Thirty Years of cheating in high school. Adolescence. 26, 61-69.

Smith, T. (2000). Applying Criminological Theories to College Student Cheating. Unpublished PhD. Dissertation, University of Albany.

Toastmasters international. (2011). Use of Body Language: The better speaker series. Retrieved on



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright © 2015 - 2023. European Journal of Foreign Language Teaching (ISSN 2537-1754) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing GroupAll rights reserved.

This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library (Biblioteca Nationala a Romaniei). All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms.

All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).