PATTERN OF DISTRIBUTION OF THE RISK FACTORS OF CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE AMONG ADULTS IN OWERRI, IMO-STATE, NIGERIA

C. A. Omeire, E. T. Oparaocha, O. C. Abanobi, S. N. O. Ibe, E. A. Nwoke

Abstract


Chronic kidney disease is a global public health concern and its associated risk factors vary between climes. The rising prevalence of this non-communicable disease calls for serious attention to the risk factors of this disease. This study to ascertain the pattern of distribution of the risk factors of chronic kidney disease was carried out on 750 participants with males being 244 and females 506. About 484 (64.5%) of the participants had hypertension (males 152 (62.2%), females 332 (65.6%). With respect to diabetes, 76 (10.1%) of the participants had diabetes (males 36 (14.8%) and females 40 (7.9%). Obesity was recorded in 145 (19.3%) of the study participants, out of which 17 (7.0%) and 128 (25.3%) of the males and females had obesity respectively. More so, 33 (13.5%) of the males and 7 (1.4%) of the females currently smoke and overall percentage prevalence of 40 (5.3%) was recorded for cigarette smoking. Alcohol use was found in 258 (34.4%) of the participants, with males and females recording 144 (59.0%) and 114 (22.5%) respectively. Co-morbidity of hypertension and diabetes was found to be 56 (7.5%), while 207 (27.6%) and 14 (1.9%) of the participants were not aware they had hypertension and diabetes respectively. Hypertension was found to be more prevalent among the study participants. Screening people from time to time will help to detect these risk factors on time, thereby aiding the prevention and control of chronic kidney disease (CKD). It is also imperative that prevention and control be focused on lifestyle changes which form the bedrock of primary level of prevention.

 

Article visualizations:

Hit counter

DOI

Keywords


chronic kidney disease, risk factors, hypertension, diabetes, obesity, smoking and alcohol use

Full Text:

PDF

References


Afolabi, M., Abioye-Kuteyi, E., Arogundade, F., & Ibrahim, S. (2009). Prevalence of Chronic Kidney Disease in a Nigerian Family Practice Population. South African Family Practice, 51; 132-137.

Ajayi, I. O., Sowemimo, I. O., Akpa, O. M., & Ossai, N. E. (2016). Prevalence of hypertension and associated factors among residents of Ibadan-North Local Government Area of Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Cardiology; 13(1):67-75. Doi:10.4103//0189-7969.165168.

Anker, D., Santos-Eggiman, B., Santschi, V., Giovane, C. D., Wolfson, C., Streit, S., Rodondi, N., & Chiolero, A. (2018). Screening and treatment of hypertension in older adults: less is more? Public Health Reviews; 39:26. Doi: 10.1186/s40985-018-0101-2.

Asemoh, J. (2014). A tip of the iceberg of a silent epidemic. http://www.abujaclinics.com/Articles4.html

Baumgarten, M. (2011). Chronic kidney disease: detection and evaluation. American Family Physician, 84(10), 1138-1148.

Chen, W., Liu, Q., Wang, H., Johnson, R. J., Dong, X., Li, H., … Yu, X. (2011). Prevalence and risk factors of chronic kidney disease: a population study in the Tibetan population. Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, 26, 1592-1599. Doi:10.1093/ndt/gfq608.

Chukwuonye, I. I., Chuku, A., John, C., Ohagwu, K. A., Imoh, M. E., Ejiji, S. I., Ogah, O. S., & Oviasu, E. (2013). Prevalence of overweight and obesity in adult Nigerians-a systematic review. Diabetes, metabolic syndrome and obesity: Targets and therapy; 6:43-47. Doi:10.2147/DMSO.S38626.

Dahiru, T., Aliyu, A. A., & Shehu, A. U. (2016). A review of population-based studies on diabetes in Nigeria. Sub-Saharan African Journal of Medicine; 3(2):59-64. Doi:10.4103/2384-5147.184351.

Ebirim, C. I. C., & Mayowa, M. O. (2011). Prevalence and perceived health effect of alcohol use among male undergraduate students in Owerri, South-East, Nigeria: a descriptive cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health; 11:118. Doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-118.

Egbi, O. G., Okafor, U. H., Miebodei, K. E., Kasia, B. E., Kunle-Olowu, O. E., & Unuigbe, E. I. (2014). Prevalence and correlates of chronic kidney disease among civil servants in Bayelsa state, Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice, 17, 602-607. Doi:10.4103/1119-3077.141426.

Ejerblad, E., Fored, C. M., Lindblad, P., Fryzek, J. P., McLaughlin, J. K, & Nyren, O. (2006). Obesity and risk for chronic renal failure. Journal of American Society of Nephrology, 17, 1695-1702.

El-Nahas, A. M., & Bello, A. K (2005). Chronic kidney disease: The global challenge. Lancet, 365, 331–340.

Ephraim, R. K. D. (2010). Predictive equations, oxidative and metabolic risk factors among Ghanaian patients presenting with chronic kidney disease. (Doctoral thesis, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi).

Fawibe, A. E. & Shittu, A. O. (2011). Prevalence and characteristics of cigarette smokers among undergraduates of the University of Illorin, Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of clinical practice; 14:201-205. Doi:10.4103/1119-3077.84016.

Global adult tobacco survey (GATS) (2012). World Health Organization Country report. www.who.int>nigeria_country_report.

Hunley, T., Ma, L., & Kon, V. (2010). Scope and mechanisms of obesity-related renal disease. Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension, 19, 227-234. Doi:10.1097/MNH.0b013e3283374c09.

Iwuala, S. O., Ayankogbe, O. O., Olatona, F. A., Olamoyegen, M. A., Okparaigwe, U., Sabir, A. A., & Fasanmade, O. (2015). Obesity among health service providers in Nigeria: danger to long term health worker retention. The Pan African Medical Journal; 22:1. Doi:10.11604/pamj.2015.22.1.5586.

Lasebikan, V. O., & Ola, B. A. (2016). Prevalence and correlates of alcohol use among a sample of Nigerian semirural community dwellers in Nigeria. Journal of addiction; 2016:1-6. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/2831594.

Levey, A. S., & Coresh, J. (2012). Chronic kidney disease. Lancet, 379(9811), 165-180. Doi: http://doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(11)60178-5.

López-Novoa, J. M., Martínez-Salgado, C., Rodríguez-Peña, A. B., & López-Hernández, F. J (2010). Common pathophysiological mechanisms of chronic kidney disease: therapeutic perspectives. Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 128(1):61-81. Doi:10.1016/jpharmathera.2010.05.006.

National Center for Health Statistics (US) Health, United States (2007): With chart book on trends in the health of Americans.

National kidney foundation (2015). Alcohol and your kidneys. http://www.kidney.org

Obinna, C. (2012). Nigeria contributes one quarter of diabetes burden in Africa. http://www.vanguardngr.com/2017/10/

Ogbera, A. O., & Ekpebegh, C. (2014). Diabetes in Nigeria: the past, present, and future. World Journal of Diabetes; 5(6):905-911. Doi:104239//wjd.vs.i6.905.

Oyewole, B. K., Arimasahun, V. J., & Chapman, H. J. (2018). Tobacco use in Nigerian youth: A systematic review. PLoS ONE; 13(5):e0196362. Doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0196362.

Pinto, E. (2007). Blood pressure and ageing. Post graduate Medical Journal; 83(976):109-114. Doi:10.1136/pgmj.2006.048371.

Raheem, R. Y., Taiwo, A., & Oye, G. (2017). Awareness of hypertension and its impact on blood pressure control among elderly Nigerians: report from the Ibadan study of aging. The Pan African Medical Journal; 27:190. Doi:10.11604/pamj.2017.27.190.11682.

Rigaud, A., & Forette, B. (2001). Hypertension in older adults. The Journal Of Gerontology Series A; 56(4). https://doi.org/10.1093//geron/56.4mzv17

Schaeffner, E. S., Kurth, T., Curhan, G. C., Glynn, R. J., Rexrode, K. M., Baigent, C.,… Gaziano, J. M. (2003). Cholesterol and the risk of renal dysfunction in apparently healthy men. Journal of American Society of Nephrology, 14, 2084-2091.

Ulasi, I. I., & Ijoma, C. K. (2010). The enormity of chronic kidney disease in Nigeria: the situation in a teaching hospital in South Eastern Nigeria. Journal of Tropical medicine, 2010, 1-6. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2010/501957.

Ulasi, I., Ijoma, C., Arodiwe, E., Okoye, S., & Ifebumadu, N. (2009). Lifestyle risk factors: Do they contribute to chronic kidney disease in developing countries? Internet Journal of Nephrology, 6(1), 1-4.

US preventive services task force-USPSTF (2012). Final recommendation statement. Chronic kidney disease (CKD): Screening. http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org

World Health Organization, (2000). Obesity: preventing and managing the global epidemic. Report of a World Health Organization. World Health Organization technical report series; 804:1-253.

World Health Organization, (2013). Nigerians wake up to high blood pressure. Bulletin of the World Health Organization; 91:242-243.

Yusuf, S. M., Mijinyanwa, M. S., Musa, B. M., Gezawa, I. D., & Uloko, A. E. (2013). Overweight and obesity among adolescents in Kano, Nigeria. Journal of metabolic syndrome; 2:126. Doi:10.4172/2167-0943.1000126.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2019 C. A. Omeire, E. T. Oparaocha, O. C. Abanobi, S. N. O. Ibe, E. A. Nwoke

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Copyright © 2015 - 2019. European Journal of Public Health Studies (ISSN 2668-1056/ISSN-L 2668-1056) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing Group. All rights reserved.

This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library. All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms. All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and standards formulated by Budapest Open Access Initiative (2002), the Bethesda Statement on Open Access Publishing (2003) and Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities (2003) and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Copyrights of the published research works are retained by authors.