Georgia Konstantopoulou, Theodoros Iliou, Katerina Karaivazoglou, Gregoris Iconomou, Konstantinos Assimakopoulos, Panagiotis Alexopoulos


The SSQ-25 stress symptom questionnaire was created to detect even mild, subclinical stress symptoms. In the present study, a total of 412 individuals were assigned (108 employees, 233 undergraduate students, 71 postgraduate students). The Beck Stress Questionnaire (BAI) and the Spielberger Stress Questionnaire (STAI) section on stress as a personality trait were used to highlight anxiety symptoms as stress often triggers stressful events. The SSQ-25 showed high internal consistency (Cronbach’s α = 0.944) and reliability (Intraclass Correlation Coefficient test 0.937). The factor analysis showed high validity and correlation, 0.740 with Beck Questionnaire and low validity and correlation with Spielberger Questionnaire. The Greek translation has shown good psychometric properties and is a practical and easy-to-use tool for detecting even mild symptoms of stress in the general population.

Article visualizations:

Hit counter


SSQ-25, BAI, STAI, sub-clinical symptoms of stress, questionnaire validation

Full Text:



American College Health Association (2019). American College Health Association: National College health assessment II: Reference group executive summary spring 2019. Published online.

Arnett, J. J. (2000). Emerging adulthood: A theory of development from the late teens through the twenties. American Psychologist, 55, 469-480.

Beck, A. T. (1972). Depression: Causes and Treatment. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 0-8122-1032-8. doi:10.1007/s00115-016-0181-2

Brooks, S. K., Webster, R. K., Smith, L. E., Woodland, L., Wessely, S., Greenberg, N., & Rubin, G. J. (2020). The psychological impact of quarantine and how to reduce it: rapid review of the evidence. Lancet, 395: 912–20. Published Online February 26, 2020. Department of Psychological Medicine, King’s College London, London, UK.

Cao, W., Fang, Z., Hou, G., Han, M., Xu, X., Dong, J., & Zheng, J. (2020). The psychological impact of the COVID-19 epidemic on college students in China. Psychiatry Research, 287, Article 112984.

Galanaki, E., & Leontopoulou, S. (2017). Criteria for the transition to adulthood, developmental features of emerging adulthood, and views of the future among Greek studying youth. Europe’s Journal of Psychology, 13. doi:10.5964/ejop.v13i3.1327

Galanaki, E., & Sideridis, G. (2018). Dimensions of emerging adulthood, criteria for adulthood, and identity development in Greek studying youth: A person-centered approach. Emerging Adulthood. Published online-first on May 22, 2018, 411-431. doi: 10.1177/2167696818777040.

Germani, A., Delvecchio, E., Bin Li, J., & Mazzeschi, C. (2020). Protective factors for depressive symptoms in emerging adulthood. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 1-6. doi: 10.1111/sjop.12616.

Grubic, N., Badovinac, S. & Johri, A. M. (2020). Student mental health in the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic: A call for further research and immediate solutions. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, Published online first on May 2, 2020. doi: 10.1177/0020764020925108

Karalis, T., & Raikou, N. (2020). Teaching at the times of COVID-19: Inferences and Implications for Higher Education Pedagogy. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 10(5), 479–493.

Lee, J. (2020). Mental health effects of school closures during COVID-19. The Lancet, 4. Published first online, April 14, 2020.

Leontopoulou, S., Mavridis, D. & Giotsa, A. (2016). Psychometric Properties of the Greek Inventory of the Dimensions of Emerging Adulthood (IDEA): University Student Perceptions of Developmental Features. J Adult Dev, 23, 226–244 doi: 10.1007/s10804-016-9239-4

Petrogiannis, K. (2011). Conceptions of the transition to adulthood in a sample of Greek higher education students. International Journal of Psychology and Psychological Therapy, 11(1), 121-137.

Raikou, N. (2019). Teacher Education at the forefront: Long-term study through the prism of University Pedagogy and Transformative Learning theory. European Journal of Education Studies, 6(3), 88-102.

Torales, J., Higgins, M. O., Castaldelli-Maia, J. M., & Ventriglio, A. (2020). The outbreak of COVID-19 corona virus and its impact on global mental health. International Journal of Social Psychiatry. Advance online publication.

Wang, C., Pan, R., Wan, X., Tan, Y., Xu, L., Ho, C. S., & Ho, R. C. (2020). Immediate psychological responses and associated factors during the initial stage of the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) epidemic among the general population in China. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(5), Article 1729.

Wickens, C. M. (2011). The academic and psychosocial impact of labor unions and strikes on university campuses. In M. E. Poulsen (Ed.), Higher education: Teaching, internationalization and student issues (pp. 107–133). New York: Nova Scotia Publishers.

YoungMinds. (2020). Coronavirus: Impact on young people with mental health needs. Published online, March, 2020.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2020 Georgia Konstantopoulou, Theodoros Iliou, Katerina Karaivazoglou, Gregoris Iconomou, Konstantinos Assimakopoulos, Panagiotis Alexopoulos

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Copyright © 2019 - 2023. European Journal of Public Health Studies (ISSN 2668-1056/ISSN-L 2668-1056) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing Group. All rights reserved.

This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library. All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms. All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and standards formulated by Budapest Open Access Initiative (2002), the Bethesda Statement on Open Access Publishing (2003) and Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities (2003) and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Copyrights of the published research works are retained by authors.