Yuliandary Yunus, Prima Dhewi Ratrikaningtyas, Dwi Ernawati


Background: Globally, 40% of children under the age of 6 months are exclusively breastfed. The results of the Basic Health Research (RISKESDAS) in 2018, the rate of exclusive breastfeeding for infants aged 0-6 months, it merely reached 37.3%. Purpose: To discover the factors that affected the failure of exclusive breastfeeding. Method: Scoping review adapted the Arskey and O'Malley framework, using a database from PubMed, Willey. and ScienceDirect. Finding: 21 articles out of 1563 selected based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. Factors related to the failure of exclusive breastfeeding were divided into three factors, namely (1) sociodemographic factors consist of knowledge, occupation, age, environment and socio-culture, (2) health factors consist maternal parity, BMI, and psychological, (3) psychosocial factors consist of attitudes, breastfeeding intentions, family support, support from health workers and information obtained by the mother. Conclusion: The factors that most affected the failure of exclusive breastfeeding were the lack of family support for breastfeeding mothers, the support of passive health workers in providing information about exclusive breastfeeding and the work status of mothers who required mothers to work outside the home. In-depth research must be needed to find out the best strategy in increasing the achievement of exclusive breastfeeding.

Article visualizations:

Hit counter


exclusive breastfeeding failure, inhibiting factors for breastfeeding, scoping review

Full Text:



L. Salmon, “Food security for infants and young children: An opportunity for breastfeeding policy?,” Int. Breastfeed. J., vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 1–13, 2015, doi: 10.1186/s13006-015-0029-6.

L. J. Brown and R. Sear, “Are mothers less likely to breastfeed in harsh environments? Physical environmental quality and breastfeeding in the Born in Bradford study,” Matern. Child Nutr., vol. 15, no. 4, 2019, doi: 10.1111/mcn.12851.

E. Santacruz-Salas, I. Aranda-Reneo, A. Segura-Fragoso, A. I. Cobo-Cuenca, J. A. Laredo-Aguilera, and J. M. Carmona-Torres, “Mothers’ expectations and factors influencing exclusive breastfeeding during the first 6 months,” Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 3–5, 2020, doi: 10.3390/ijerph17010077.

H. Arksey and L. O’Malley, “Scoping studies: Towards a methodological framework,” Int. J. Soc. Res. Methodol. Theory Pract., vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 19–32, 2005, doi: 10.1080/1364557032000119616.

K. Jamie, L. McGeagh, H. Bows, and R. O’Neill, “‘I just don’t think it’s that natural’: adolescent mothers’ constructions of breastfeeding as deviant,” Sociol. Heal. Illn., vol. 42, no. 7, pp. 1689–1708, 2020, doi: 10.1111/1467-9566.13157.

P. J. Perera, N. Ranathunga, M. P. Fernando, W. Sampath, and G. B. Samaranayake, “Actual exclusive breastfeeding rates and determinants among a cohort of children living in Gampaha district Sri Lanka: A prospective observational study,” Int. Breastfeed. J., vol. 7, pp. 1–6, 2012, doi: 10.1186/1746-4358-7-21.

M. L. Gianni et al., “Breastfeeding difficulties and risk for early breastfeeding cessation,” Nutrients, vol. 11, no. 10, pp. 1–10, 2019, doi: 10.3390/nu11102266.

A. Keely, J. Lawton, V. Swanson, and F. C. Denison, “Barriers to breast-feeding in obese women: A qualitative exploration,” Midwifery, vol. 31, no. 5, pp. 532–539, 2015, doi: 10.1016/j.midw.2015.02.001.

F. Göksen, “Normative vs. attitudinal considerations in breastfeeding behavior: Multifaceted social influences in a developing country context,” Soc. Sci. Med., vol. 54, no. 12, pp. 1743–1753, 2002, doi: 10.1016/S0277-9536(01)00145-9.

S. Attard Montalto, H. Borg, M. Buttigieg-Said, and E. J. Clemmer, “Incorrect advice: the most significant negative determinant on breast feeding in Malta,” Midwifery, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. e6–e13, 2010, doi: 10.1016/j.midw.2008.06.002.

J. Ayton, E. Hansen, S. Quinn, and M. Nelson, “Factors associated with initiation and exclusive breastfeeding at hospital discharge: Late preterm compared to 37 week gestation mother and infant cohort,” Int. Breastfeed. J., vol. 7, pp. 1–6, 2012, doi: 10.1186/1746-4358-7-16.

J. E. Ayton, L. Tesch, and E. Hansen, “Women’s experiences of ceasing to breastfeed: Australian qualitative study,” BMJ Open, vol. 9, no. 5, 2019, doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2018-026234.

K. Al Dasoqi, R. Safadi, E. Badran, A. S. Basha, S. Jordan, and M. Ahmad, “Initiation and continuation of breastfeeding among jordanian first-time mothers: A prospective cohort study,” Int. J. Womens. Health, vol. 10, pp. 571–577, 2018, doi: 10.2147/IJWH.S175850.

E. H. Emmott, A. E. Page, and S. Myers, “Typologies of postnatal support and breastfeeding at two months in the UK,” Soc. Sci. Med., vol. 246, no. September 2019, p. 112791, 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2020.112791.

C. Lechosa-Muñiz et al., “Factors associated with duration of breastfeeding in Spain: A cohort study,” Int. Breastfeed. J., vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 1–9, 2020, doi: 10.1186/s13006-020-00324-6.

K. Y. W. Lok, D. L. Bai, and M. Tarrant, “Predictors of breastfeeding initiation in Hong Kong and Mainland China born mothers,” BMC Pregnancy Childbirth, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 1–11, 2015, doi: 10.1186/s12884-015-0719-5.

A. Patel et al., “Rates and determinants of early initiation of breastfeeding and exclusive breast feeding at 42 days postnatal in six low and middle-income countries: A prospective cohort study,” Reprod. Health, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 1–11, 2015, doi: 10.1186/1742-4755-12-S2-S10.

J. Stockdale, M. Sinclair, G. Kernohan, E. McCrum-Gardner, and J. Keller, “Sensitivity of the breastfeeding motivational measurement scale: A known group analysis of first time mothers,” PLoS One, vol. 8, no. 12, pp. 1–7, 2013, doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0082976.

Tarrant, M., Dodgson, J. E., & Wu, K. M. (2014). Factors contributing to early breast-feeding cessation among Chinese mothers: an exploratory study. Midwifery, 30(10), 1088-1095.

L. Hunt and G. Thomson, “Pressure and judgement within a dichotomous landscape of infant feeding: a grounded theory study to explore why breastfeeding women do not access peer support provision,” Matern. Child Nutr., vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 1–13, 2017, doi: 10.1111/mcn.12279.

E. L. Tuthill, J. M. McGrath, M. Graber, R. M. Cusson, and S. L. Young, “Breastfeeding Self-efficacy: A Critical Review of Available Instruments,” J. Hum. Lact., vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 35–45, 2016, doi: 10.1177/0890334415599533.

R. L. Spencer, S. Greatrex-White, and D. M. Fraser, “‘I thought it would keep them all quiet’. Women’s experiences of breastfeeding as illusions of compliance: An interpretive phenomenological study,” J. Adv. Nurs., vol. 71, no. 5, pp. 1076–1086, 2015, doi: 10.1111/jan.12592.

I. Williamson, D. Leeming, S. Lyttle, and S. Johnson, “‘It should be the most natural thing in the world’: Exploring first-time mothers’ breastfeeding difficulties in the UK using audio-diaries and interviews,” Matern. Child Nutr., vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 434–447, 2012, doi: 10.1111/j.1740-8709.2011.00328.x.

M. Salih, “Relactation in lactation failure and low milk supply,” Sudan. J. Paediatr., vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 39–47, 2018, doi: 10.24911/sjp.2018.1.6.

F. A. Ogbo, A. Page, J. Idoko, and K. E. Agho, “Population attributable risk of key modifiable risk factors associated with non-exclusive breastfeeding in Nigeria,” BMC Public Health, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 1–10, 2018, doi: 10.1186/s12889-018-5145-y.

C. Odar Stough, A. S. Khalsa, L. A. Nabors, A. L. Merianos, and J. Peugh, “Predictors of Exclusive Breastfeeding for 6 Months in a National Sample of US Children,” Am. J. Heal. Promot., vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 48–56, 2019, doi: 10.1177/0890117118774208.

M. Behzadifar et al., “Prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding practice in the first six months of life and its determinants in Iran: A systematic review and meta-analysis,” BMC Pediatr., vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 1–10, 2019, doi: 10.1186/s12887-019-1776-0.

E. E. Jardine, J. McLellan, and S. U. Dombrowski, “Is being resolute better than being pragmatic when it comes to breastfeeding? Longitudinal qualitative study investigating experiences of women intending to breastfeed using the Theoretical Domains Framework,” J. Public Heal. (United Kingdom), vol. 39, no. 3, pp. e88–e94, 2017, doi: 10.1093/pubmed/fdw073.

O. Nkoka, P. A. M. Ntenda, V. Kanje, E. B. Milanzi, and A. Arora, “Determinants of timely initiation of breast milk and exclusive breastfeeding in Malawi: A population-based cross-sectional study,” Int. Breastfeed. J., vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 1–9, 2019, doi: 10.1186/s13006-019-0232-y.

V. A. A. L. Silva, M. F. C. Caminha, S. L. Silva, V. M. S. B. D. Serva, P. T. A. C. C. Azevedo, and M. B. Filho, “Maternal breastfeeding: indicators and factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding in a subnormal urban cluster assisted by the Family Health Strategy,” J. Pediatr. (Rio. J)., vol. 95, no. 3, pp. 298–305, 2019, doi: 10.1016/j.jped.2018.01.004.

C. N. Ihudiebube-Splendor et al., “Exclusive Breastfeeding Knowledge, Intention to Practice and Predictors among Primiparous Women in Enugu South-East, Nigeria,” J. Pregnancy, vol. 2019, 2019, doi: 10.1155/2019/9832075.

S. J. Charlick, A. Fielder, J. Pincombe, and L. McKellar, “‘Determined to breastfeed’: A case study of exclusive breastfeeding using interpretative phenomenological analysis,” Women and Birth, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 325–331, 2017, doi: 10.1016/j.wombi.2017.01.002.

P. Robiquet et al., “Observation of skin-to-skin contact and analysis of factors linked to failure to breastfeed within 2 hours after birth,” Breastfeed. Med., vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 126–132, 2016, doi: 10.1089/bfm.2015.0160.

Z. Zhang, Y. Zhu, L. Zhang, and H. Wan, “What factors influence exclusive breastfeeding based on the theory of planned behaviour,” Midwifery, vol. 62, pp. 177–182, 2018, doi: 10.1016/j.midw.2018.04.006.

S. Buttham, K. Kongwattanakul, N. Jaturat, and S. Soontrapa, “Rate and factors affecting non-exclusive breastfeeding among Thai women under the breastfeeding promotion program,” Int. J. Womens. Health, vol. 9, pp. 689–694, 2017, doi: 10.2147/IJWH.S148464.

K. Y. W. Lok, D. L. Bai, and M. Tarrant, “Family members’ infant feeding preferences, maternal breastfeeding exposures and exclusive breastfeeding intentions,” Midwifery, vol. 53, pp. 49–54, 2017, doi: 10.1016/j.midw.2017.07.003.

T. Tewabe, A. Mandesh, T. Gualu, G. Alem, G. Mekuria, and H. Zeleke, “Exclusive breastfeeding practice and associated factors among mothers in Motta town, East Gojjam zone, Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia, 2015: A cross-sectional study,” Int. Breastfeed. J., vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 1–7, 2017, doi: 10.1186/s13006-017-0103-3.

S. Finnie, R. Peréz-Escamilla, and G. Buccini, “Determinants of early breastfeeding initiation and exclusive breastfeeding in Colombia,” Public Health Nutr., 2019, doi: 10.1017/S1368980019002180.

L. Mattar, M. Hobeika, R. K. Zeidan, P. Salameh, and C. Issa, “Determinants of Exclusive and Mixed Breastfeeding Durations and Risk of Recurrent Illnesses in Toddlers Attending Day Care Programs Across Lebanon,” J. Pediatr. Nurs., vol. 45, pp. e24–e34, 2019, doi: 10.1016/j.pedn.2018.12.015.

K. A. Susiloretni, H. Hadi, M. M. Blakstad, E. R. Smith, and A. H. Shankar, “Does exclusive breastfeeding relate to the longer duration of breastfeeding? A prospective cohort study,” Midwifery, vol. 69, pp. 163–171, 2019, doi: 10.1016/j.midw.2018.11.008.

Q. N. T. Le et al., “Factors associated with a low prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding during hospital stay in urban and semi-rural areas of southern Vietnam,” Int. Breastfeed. J., vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 1–10, 2018, doi: 10.1186/s13006-018-0188-3.

R. S. Farr, F. Rahman, M. A. O’Riordan, and L. Furman, “Assessing the Feasibility and Effectiveness of Two Prenatal Breastfeeding Intervention Apps in Promoting Postpartum In-Hospital Exclusive Breastfeeding.,” Breastfeed. Med., vol. XX, no. Xx, pp. 1–7, 2019, doi: 10.1089/bfm.2019.0053.

B. Adugna, H. Tadele, F. Reta, and Y. Berhan, “Determinants of exclusive breastfeeding in infants less than six months of age in Hawassa, an urban setting, Ethiopia,” Int. Breastfeed. J., vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 4–11, 2017, doi: 10.1186/s13006-017-0137-6.

M. L. Giannì et al., “Exploring the Emotional Breastfeeding Experience of First-Time Mothers: Implications for Healthcare Support,” Front. Pediatr., vol. 8, no. May, pp. 1–7, 2020, doi: 10.3389/fped.2020.00199.

Wihardjo, R. S. D., Nurani, Y., & Ramadhan, S. (2020). The Comparison between the Effectiveness of Guided Discovery Model and Inquiry Model for Early Childhood Education Students. International Journal of Innovation, Creativity and Change, 11(3), 409-418.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2021 Yuliandary Yunus, Prima Dhewi Ratrikaningtyas, Dwi Ernawati

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Copyright © 2019 - 2023. European Journal of Public Health Studies (ISSN 2668-1056/ISSN-L 2668-1056) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing Group. All rights reserved.

This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library. All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms. All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and standards formulated by Budapest Open Access Initiative (2002), the Bethesda Statement on Open Access Publishing (2003) and Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities (2003) and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Copyrights of the published research works are retained by authors.