Augustine Sunday Aghanenu, Edison James Uffie


This work examined the relationship between economic growth and pollution in the Nigerian context using econometric approach. It utilized secondary (time-series) data culled from World Development Indicators (WDI). The study employed the methodology of descriptive statistics, unit root test and Cointegration. The study unit root test revealed that all variables in this study were stationary at first difference 1(1). However, the Trace and Maximum Eigenvalue showed that there was common stochastic drift among the variables. Hence, the Johansen Test of Cointegration showed that long-run equilibrium relationship existed among the variables utilized. Also, the Normalized Cointegrating Coefficients indicated that carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrogen oxide (NO2) emissions undermined GDP per capita in the long-run while methane (CH4) significantly promoted it. The study recommended that carbon dioxide (C02) should be abated by firms and companies by installing sequestration machines and the adoption of pollution emissions friendly production techniques. It also suggested the imposition of Pigouvian tax on combustion emitters by the government while the use of methane (CH4) oxide has to be encouraged to enhance productivity and output growth.


JEL: O43, O44, R11


Article visualizations:

Hit counter



carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane oxide, Pigouvian tax

Full Text:



Aijah-Obi, F.N. (2001), Fundamentals of Environmental Education and Management, University of Calabar Press, Calabar, Nigeria.

Aja, J.O. (2005), Environmental Education as a Panacea for a Sustainable Development in Nigeria: School Environment in Focus, African Journal of Environmental Law and Development Studies 1(4) 114-120

Dudka, S. and Adriano, D.C (1997), A Review of the Environmental Impacts of Metal Ore Iron Minning and Processing, Journal of Environmental Quality, 26 (3), 34-39

Ekuri, P. and Eze (1999), Teaching Environmental Pollution in Primary and Secondary Schools: In Proceedings of the Orientation Workshop for Teachers on the Implementation of the National Environmental Education Curricula, Ogoja, Cross River State, Nigeria.

Gbehe, N.T. (2004), “An Examination of Environmental Degradation Associated with the Land Use Types” Conference Paper Delivered at the Department of Geography, Benue State University (BSU), Makurdi, Nigeria

Gbehe, N.T. and Ocheri, C. (2004). Impact of pollution Leading to ill Health, Death and Disabilities. New York. Oxford University Press.

Grossman G.M and Krueger A.B (1993)” Environmental impacts of a North America Free Trade Agreement in “The US- Mexico Free Trade Agreement. MIT Press, Cambridge.

Gujariti, D.N. and Porter D.C. (2009), Basic Econometrics, Six Edition, Mc-Graw Hill Incorporated, New York.

Isachei, A.O., (1999). Management of the Nigeria environment in the Next Millennium and trategies for promoting a better society Nigeria Heaven Club International, Part II pg 43.

Iyoha M.A. (2006), Applied Econometrics, Second Edition, Mindex Publishing, Benin City.

Jande, G.G. (2005), Legal Mechanism for the Control of Pollution on the Sea, African Journal of Environment, Law and Development Studies. 1(3) 9-13

John, A. and and Pecchenino, R. (1994), An Overlapping Generations Model of Growth and the Environment.

Jorgenson D.W and Wilcoxen, P (1993), Energy, the Environment and Economic Growth, Handbook of National Resources and Energy Economic 3: 1269-1373.

Kuznet, S. (1995), Economic Growth and Inequality Income. America Economic Reviews 4(1): 16-25.

Lopez, R. (1994); The Environmental as a Factor of Production: The Effects of Economic Growth and Trade Liberalization. Journal of Environmental Economics and Management. 27(2): 165-170.

Menz, P. and Seip, R. (2004). Acid Rain contribution, Negative Effect of Pollution on Human Health. New York Oxford University Press.

Miller, J.O. (1976), Living in Environment Concepts, Problems and Alternatives, California Wad South Publishing Company incorporated, California.

Ocheri M.I. (2003). Environmental Health Hazards and National survival and Stability: A Need for Education, Benue State University Journal Of Education 4(1): 169-171

Omisakin, D. (2009), Economic Growth and Environmental Quality in Nigeria: Does Environmental Kuznet Curve Hypothesis Hold? Environmental Research Journal 3 (1): 14-18

Omoju, N. (2014). Economic Growth and Competitiveness of Developing Countries whose countries depends on natural resources. Oxford Blackwell Publishers, Oxford.

Selden Thomas and Daqing Song (1994), Environmental Quality and Development. Is there a Kuznet curve for Air Pollution?. Environmental Journal of Environmental Economic and management. 27( 2) :147

Shafik, N.T. (1994), Economic Development and Environmental Quality: An Econometric Assessment, Oxford Economic Papers. 46(1): 758-761

Stokey, N. (1998), Are there Limit to Growth? University of Chicago International Economic Review 39(1): 31-35

World Bank Development Indicators (2015), Washington DC, USA.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2018 Augustine Sunday Aghanenu, Edison James Uffie

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

The research works published in this journal are free to be accessed. They can be shared (copied and redistributed in any medium or format) and\or adapted (remixed, transformed, and built upon the material for any purpose, commercially and\or not commercially) under the following terms: attribution (appropriate credit must be given indicating original authors, research work name and publication name mentioning if changes were made) and without adding additional restrictions (without restricting others from doing anything the actual license permits). Authors retain the full copyright of their published research works and cannot revoke these freedoms as long as the license terms are followed.

Copyright © 2015 - 2018. European Journal of Economic and Financial Research (ISSN 2501-9430) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing GroupAll rights reserved.

This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library. All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms. All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and standards formulated by Budapest Open Access Initiative (2002), the Bethesda Statement on Open Access Publishing (2003) and  Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities (2003) and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Copyrights of the published research works are retained by authors.