VALUING APPLES: FROM THE MYSTIC APPLE TO THE DIGITAL APPLES OF THE 21st CENTURY

Nilüfer Pembecioğlu, Nebahat Akgün Çomak

Abstract


Apple is one of the first pieces of food mentioned in the earliest stories and books of mankind and different values were attributed to apple throughout the whole history. Various societies contributed to the appreciation of it placing it in their lullabies or fairy tales as well as in their daily communication and diet. Even if it seems to be so common, humble, and accessible, the lack of it is also interpreted in different ways. Yet, nowadays, it became one of the main foods of the 21st century as well. Following a quantitative and descriptive methodology and analyzing the values attributed to Apple, this paper provides a glimpse of its history and aims to analyze the ‘Apple’ case in Turkey regarding it not only as a ‘mystic’ product affecting the whole humanity but also as an agricultural product to be paid attention with the new trends in food processing in its developing aspects. Whereas the agricultural people spend more time and energy in producing better crops all around the world, the apple case in Turkey puts a shade on modernity placing apple growers away from sustainability, innovation, and productivity. Dwelling on the media coverage of the past few years regarding the apple as a content, the paper aims to introduce the main value of the apple as a product of agriculture and handles the problem of what to do in the case of apple production in its modern sense. Field research is enriched as to provide qualitative reports based on the focus group discussions and interviews with the apple producers and decision-makers as to put forward how apple is priced or degraded. In conclusion, it provides a needs analysis format, a systematic approach to the problem as a process of identifying and evaluating the apple case. As the results put forward, growing apples require valuing them. It also requires better-established facts, better-trained people, and concentrating more on the specific needs of employees, customers, suppliers, etc. These needs are often referred to as “gaps,” or the difference between what is currently done and what should be performed. So, re-valuing apples requires to bridge the gap between the mystic apples and the digital apples of the 21st century. Today’s farmers, should become a part of the network, enrich their cultivation methodology and innovation capacities as to reach to precision agriculture substructure and techniques to be able to become a part of the smart agriculture. Otherwise, they keep on just swallowing the mud of the field or consuming the fake news instead of reality.

JEL: O13; Q10; Q12; Q13; Q15

Article visualizations:

Hit counter


Keywords


apple, smart agriculture, precision agriculture, branding, media literacy of farmers, growing apples

Full Text:

PDF

References


Celik, F., Kazankaya, A., & Ercisli, S. (2009). Fruit characteristics of some selected promising rose hip (Rosa spp.) genotypes from Van region of Turkey. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 4(3), 236-240.

Cennet, Oğuz & Karaçayır, H. F. (2009). Türkiye’de elma üretimi, tüketimi, pazar yapısı ve dış ticareti. International Journal of Agricultural and Natural Sciences, 2(1), 41-49.Celik, F., Kazankaya, A., & Ercisli, S. (2009). Fruit characteristics of some selected promising rose hip (Rosa spp.) genotypes from Van region of Turkey. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 4(3), 236-240.

Chatzopoulos, T., Domínguez, I. P., Zampieri, M., & Toreti, A. (2020). Climate extremes and agricultural commodity markets: a global economic analysis of regionally simulated events. Weather and Climate Extremes, 27, 100193.

Çolak, A. M., & Özoğul, A. (2020). Pomological and Biochemical Characteristics of Local Apple Genotypes Grown in Uşak-Turkey. Pak. J. Bot, 52(3), 955-961.

Dursunoglu, S., & Ertunc, F. (2006, May). Distribution of Apple mosaic ilarvirus (ApMV) in Turkey. In XX International Symposium on Virus and Virus-Like Diseases of Temperate Fruit Crops-Fruit Tree Diseases 781 (pp. 131-134).

Dündar, O., Uygun, I., & Ozkaya, O. (2009, April). Cold storage of' Granny Smith' apples that were grown in Nigde-Turkey conditions. In X International Controlled and Modified Atmosphere Research Conference 876 (pp. 355-359).

Ellenwood, C. W. (1930). The cost of developing an apple orchard.

Emongor, V. E., & Murr, D. P. (2001). Effect of Benzyladenine on Fruit Set, Quality, and Vegetative Growth of ‘Empire’ Apples. East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal, 67(1-2), 83-91.

Engindeniz, S., Cukur, F., & Engindeniz, D. Y. (2003). Alternative opportunities for small farms: A case study on technical and economic analysis of peach growing in Turkey. Journal of agricultural & food information, 5(4), 47-58.

Erkan, M., Pekmezci, M., Gübbük, H., & Karaşahin, I. (2004). Effects of controlled atmosphere storage on scald development and postharvest physiology of Granny Smith apples. Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry, 28(1), 43-48.

Food Agricultural Organization, 2006

Gül, M. (2006). Technical efficiency of apple farming in Turkey: A case study covering Isparta, Karaman and Nigde provinces. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 9(4), 601-605.

http://www.haberalp.com/guncel/elma-diyari-gumushanede-askida-elma-uygulamasi-ses-getirdi-h89375.html Accessed in 11.11.2020.

http://www.isteisparta.com/newsdetails.asp?id=952 Accessed in 11.11.2020.

http://www.wapa-association.org/asp/page_1.asp?doc_id=436 Accessed in 11.11.2020.

http://www.wapa-association.org/asp/page_members.asp Accessed in 11.11.2020.

https://apps.fas.usda.gov/psdonline/circulars/fruit.pdf Accessed in 11.11.2020.

https://ec.europa.eu/info/sites/info/files/food-farming-fisheries/farming/documents/apples-production_en.pdf Accessed in 11.11.2020.

https://ec.europa.eu/research/innovation-union/pdf/innovation-union-communication_en.pdf Accessed in 11.11.2020.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_apple_production Accessed in 11.11.2020.

https://tarimdabugun.wordpress.com/2015/12/19/turkiyede-elma-uretimi/ Accessed in 11.11.2020.

https://www.aa.com.tr/tr/turkiye/kagizman-uzun-elmasi-tescillendi/1030059 Accessed in 11.11.2020.

https://www.appleawards.com/crystal-apples-awards/ Accessed in 11.11.2020.

https://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2449221/Stroud-apple-tree-Eco-warrior-Rowan-Burrough-living-tree-homes-built.html Accessed in 11.11.2020.

https://www.fruitlogistica.com/media/fl/fl_dl_all/auf_einen_blick/European_Statistics_Handbook_2020.pdf Accessed in 11.11.2020.

https://www.guneydoguekspres.com/ekonomi/kirmizi-elma-hasadi-h14423.html Accessed in 11.11.2020.

https://www.hurriyet.com.tr/bilincsiz-tarim-politikalari-meyve-suyu-sektorune-zarar-veriyor-12794885 Accessed in 11.11.2020.

https://www.hurriyet.com.tr/ekonomi/50-bin-ton-elma-depoda-kaldi-40085193 Accessed in 11.11.2020.

https://www.hurriyet.com.tr/ekonomi/bodur-elma-uretiminde-buyuk-artis-16489399 Accessed in 11.11.2020.

https://www.hurriyet.com.tr/ekonomi/ciftciler-iklim-degisikligi-ve-kuraklikla-mucadeleyi-ogreniyor-41608821 Accessed in 11.11.2020.

https://www.hurriyet.com.tr/ekonomi/deveci-armutlari-depolarda-kaldi-fiyatlar-dipte-22917916 Accessed in 11.11.2020.

https://www.hurriyet.com.tr/ekonomi/elma-cipsi-ic-piyasada-14811254 Accessed in 11.11.2020.

https://www.hurriyet.com.tr/ekonomi/hem-siginmacilari-hem-ureticileri-sevindiren-yardim-28415856 Accessed in 11.11.2020.

https://www.hurriyet.com.tr/ekonomi/ispanakla-portakal-kis-in-en-sevilen-i-cikti-ayva-ile-karalahana-dipte-kaldi-19202378 Accessed in 11.11.2020.

https://www.hurriyet.com.tr/ekonomi/tarim/bugday-ve-kayisi-uzdu-cay-ve-uzum-guldurdu-27840323 Accessed in 11.11.2020.

https://www.hurriyet.com.tr/ekonomi/yas-sebze-ve-meyve-ihracatinda-pandemi-surecinde-artis-41588840 Accessed in 11.11.2020.

https://www.hurriyet.com.tr/ekonomi/yerel-meyvenin-suyu-cikti-27199849 Accessed in 11.11.2020.

https://www.hurriyet.com.tr/ekstra-ozel/lezzet/mitolojide-de-yeri-var-gunumuz-sofrasinda-da-elmanin-hic-bilmediginiz-ozellikleri-41602971 Accessed in 11.11.2020.

https://www.hurriyet.com.tr/elmayi-bu-sistem-koruyacak-26224543 Accessed in 11.11.2020.

https://www.hurriyet.com.tr/isparta-da-elma-hasadi-basladi-37177858 Accessed in 11.11.2020.

https://www.hurriyet.com.tr/ispartaya-kiraz-ve-elma-heykelleri-40298664 Accessed in 11.11.2020.

https://www.hurriyet.com.tr/kaliteli-elma-pazar-bulamiyor-21666972 Accessed in 11.11.2020.

https://www.hurriyet.com.tr/kelebek/elma-sirkesi-mucizesi-14982987 Accessed in 11.11.2020.

https://www.hurriyet.com.tr/kelebek/havva-da-adem-i-boyle-kandirmisti-diye-sevgilisine-elma-gonderen-var-17313132 Accessed in 11.11.2020.

https://www.hurriyet.com.tr/kelebek/iste-kanserden-koruyan-yiyecekler-12740022 Accessed in 11.11.2020.

https://www.hurriyet.com.tr/kelebek/keyif/kacak-kazida-ortaya-cikan-1800-yillik-elma-mozaigi-sergileniyor-41568471 Accessed in 11.11.2020.

https://www.hurriyet.com.tr/kesilen-agacini-omuzladi-neden-kestiniz-diye-40519706 Accessed in 11.11.2020.

https://www.hurriyet.com.tr/korkutelide-elma-ihracati-40355797 Accessed in 11.11.2020.

https://www.hurriyet.com.tr/lezizz/dolapta-5-gun-dayanabiliyor-soydugunuz-elmalar-artik-renk-degistirmeyecek-41618911 Accessed in 11.11.2020.

https://www.hurriyet.com.tr/lezizz/galeri-ici-disi-kirmizi-elmaya-cografi-isaret-tescili-41340564 Accessed in 11.11.2020.

https://www.hurriyet.com.tr/lezizz/kaliteli-uykunun-yolu-da-mutfaktan-geciyor-41599606 Accessed in 11.11.2020.

https://www.hurriyet.com.tr/mahmure/menopozda-saglikli-beslenme-tuyolari-41605315 Accessed in 11.11.2020.

https://www.hurriyet.com.tr/piraziz-elmasi-tescillendi-40373012 Access 11.11.2020

https://www.hurriyet.com.tr/uretim-yuzde-116-artti-21791926 Access 11.11.2020

https://www.indexmundi.com/agriculture/?commodity=apples&graph=production Accessed in 11.11.2020.

https://www.lithgowmercury.com.au/story/184990/the-history-of-the-granny-smith-apple/ Accessed in 11.11.2020.

https://www.mevka.org.tr/Yukleme/Uploads/Dsytc6Ix5719201754304PM.pdf Accessed in 11.11.2020.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=581Kx8wzTMc Accessed in 11.11.2020.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AavSPaDPjC4 Accessed in 11.11.2020.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AavSPaDPjC4 Accessed in 11.11.2020.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RQvyicE0ByI Accessed in 11.11.2020.

https://www.zmo.org.tr/genel/bizden_detay.php?kod=32410&tipi=38⊆=0 Accessed in 11.11.2020.

J. P. Shi (2010). Characteristics of apple consumption demand in China, Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University (in Chinese).

Janick, J. (2005). The origins of fruits, fruit growing, and fruit breeding. Plant breeding reviews, 25, 255-320.

Karabati, S., Dogan, E., Pinar, M., & Celik, L. M. (2009). Socio-economic effects of agri-tourism on local communities in Turkey: The case of Aglasun. International Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Administration, 10(2), 129-142.

Karadeniz, F., Burdurlu, H. S., Koca, N., & Soyer, Y. (2005). Antioxidant activity of selected fruits and vegetables grown in Turkey. Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry, 29(4), 297-303.

Khan, M., & Bae, J. H. (2017). The environmental perspectives of apple fruit supply Chain management in Chitral, Northern Pakistan. International Journal of Supply Chain Management, 6(4), 1-16.

Küden, A., Küden, A. B., İmrak, B., & Sarier, A. (2016, October). Apple growing in Turkey. In I International Apple Symposium 1261 (pp. 25-28).

McKenna, M., Le Heron, R., & Roche, M. (2001). Living local, growing global: Renegotiating the export production regime in New Zealand’s pipfruit sector. Geoforum, 32(2), 157-166.

Memon, N. A. (2014) Apple is a symbol of health. Pakistan Food Journal, p. 34-36, October-November-2014. Available from: http://foodjournal.pk Access 11.11.2020

Merwin, I. (2008). Some antique apples for modern orchards. New York Fruit Quart, 16, 11-17.

Oğuz, C., Karakayacı, Z., & Kalyoncu, İ. H. (2009). Apple Production and Marketing in Turkey. In International Symposium on Sustainable Development (ISSD), June (pp. 9-10).

Okcu, M., Kalkışım, Ö., Okcu, Z., Karabulut, B., Yildirim, N., & Agar, G. (2015). Determination of genetic diversity among wild grown apples from eastern black sea region in Turkey using ISSR and RAPDs markers. Erwerbs-Obstbau, 57(4), 171-177.

Ozrenk, K., Balta, F., Guleryuz, M., & Kan, T. (2011). Fire blight (Erwinia amylovora) resistant/susceptibility of native apple germplasm from eastern Turkey. Crop Protection, 30(5), 526-530.

Pirlak, L., Güleryüz, M., Aslantaş, R., & Eşitken, A. (2003). Promising native summer apple (Malus domestica) cultivars from north‐eastern Anatolia, Turkey. New Zealand Journal of Crop and Horticultural Science, 31(4), 311-314.

Pirog, R. S., & Tyndall, J. C. (1999). Comparing apples to apples: An Iowa perspective on apples and local food systems.

TC Kalkınma Bakanlığı'nın hazırlamış olduğu Onuncu Kalkınma Planı, Bitkisel Üretim Özel İhtisas raporu 2014-2018.

Topcu, Y., Uzundumlu, A. S., Celep, S., & Hun, S. (2010). Analysis of the factors affecting apple farming: The case of Isparta province, Turkey. Scientific Research and Essays, 5(14), 1881-1889.

Uzunöz, M., & Akcay, Y. (2006). A profitability analysis of investment of peach and apple growing in Turkey. Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development in the Tropics and Subtropics (JARTS), 107(1), 11-18.

Yeğin, S. Ç., Güder, A., Kılıç, A., & Aydın, H. (2018) Yeni Elma Kültürü: Piraziz Elmasının (Malus communis L.) Antioksidan İçeriğinin ve Antidiyabetik Etkisinin Araştırılması. Iğdır Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü Dergisi, 8(3), 237-242.

Yue, C., Jensen, H. H., Mueller, D. S., Nonnecke, G. R., Bonnet, D., & Gleason, M. L. (2007). Estimating consumers' valuation of organic and cosmetically damaged apples. HortScience, 42(6), 1366-1371.

Zhao, X., Han, M., Deng, Q., & Xue, K. (2019, July). Decisions on supply and demand of bicycle-sharing service based on cobweb model. In 2019 16th International Conference on Service Systems and Service Management (ICSSSM) (pp. 1-5). IEEE.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.46827/ejefr.v4i4.974

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2020 Nilüfer Pembecioğlu, Nebahat Akgün Çomak

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

The research works published in this journal are free to be accessed. They can be shared (copied and redistributed in any medium or format) and\or adapted (remixed, transformed, and built upon the material for any purpose, commercially and\or not commercially) under the following terms: attribution (appropriate credit must be given indicating original authors, research work name and publication name mentioning if changes were made) and without adding additional restrictions (without restricting others from doing anything the actual license permits). Authors retain the full copyright of their published research works and cannot revoke these freedoms as long as the license terms are followed.

Copyright © 2015 - 2018. European Journal of Economic and Financial Research (ISSN 2501-9430) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing GroupAll rights reserved.

This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library. All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms. All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and standards formulated by Budapest Open Access Initiative (2002), the Bethesda Statement on Open Access Publishing (2003) and  Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities (2003) and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Copyrights of the published research works are retained by authors.