Sobhani Aliasgar


The main objective of the current study is to investigate the relationship between workplace social support and work-family conflict among employees who were married, living with a partner, or had at least one child or dependent living at home and worked a minimum of 20 h/week in Rural Water and Wastewater Company employees Kermanshah, Iran. The relation between workplace social support and work–family conflict (WFC) was examined using a two-dimensional measure of WFC and both global and summed facet measures of workplace social support (perceived coworker support and perceived supervisor support (pss). Data were gathered from 158 employees. The results indicated that workplace social support related significantly to both types of WFC, but the relation was significantly stronger to perceived coworker support than to perceived supervisor support (pss). When considering all three forms of conflict simultaneously (time-based, strain-based, and behavior-based), regression results revealed that behavior-based was the only form of conflict significantly related to workplace social support. The results underscore the importance of considering both the form and direction of WFC. The study population included 158 employees. It used the improved Leiden Quality of Work Life Questionnaire by Van der Doef and colleagues and the work-family conflict questionnaire by Kelloway and colleagues to measure participants' responses. One-way ANOVA and Pearson linear correlation coefficient were used for data analyses. Results: There was a negative relation between Workplace Social Support and work-family conflict. Respondents experienc!ed higher levels of work-to-family conflict than family-to-work conflict. There were significant negative relations between Perceived Coworker Support with work-family conflict and Perceived Supervisor Support (PSS) with work-family conflict. work-family conflict of employed women could be reduced by rearranging Workplace Social Support and conditions.

JEL: A39, J81, E23, J21


Article visualizations:

Hit counter



Allen TD. Family-supportive work environments: The role of organizational perceptions. Journal of Vocational Behavior. 2001;58:414–435.

Allen TD, Herst DE, Bruck CS, Sutton M. Consequences associated with work-to-family conflict: A review and agenda for future research. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology. 2000;5:278–308.

Aumann K, Galinsky E. The state of health in the American workforce: Does having an effective workplace matter? New York, NY: Families and Work Institute; 2009.

Bakker A, Demeroutti E. The job-demands resources model: State of the art. Journal of Managerial Psychology. 2007;22:309–328.

Behson SJ. Which dominates? The relative importance of work-family organizational support and general organizational context on employee outcomes. Journal of Vocational Behavior. 2002;61:53–72.

Caplan R, Cobb S, French J, Harrison R, Pinneau S. Job demands and worker health. Ann Arbor, MI: Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan; 1975.

Carr JZ, Schmidt AM, Ford JK, DeShon RP. Climate perceptions matter: A meta-analytic path analysis relating molar climate, cognitive and affective states, and individual level work outcomes. Journal of Applied Psychology. 2003;88:605–619.

Cobb S. Social support as moderator of life stress. Psychosomatic Medicine. 1976;38:300–314.

Cohen J. Statistical power analysis for behavioral sciences. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum; 1987.

Cohen S, Willis TA. Stress, social support, and the buffering hypothesis. Psychological Bulletin. 1985;98:310–357.

DeShon R. A generalizability theory perspective on measurement error corrections in validity generalization. In: Murphy KR, editor. Validity generalization: A critical review. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum; 2002. pp. 365–402.

Eby LT, Casper WJ, Lockwood A, Bordeaux C, Brinley A. Work and family research in IO/OB: Content analysis and review of the literature (1980–2002) Journal of Vocational Behavior. 2005;66:124–197.

Eisenberger R, Armeli S, Rexwinkel B, Lynch PD, Rhoades L. Reciprocation of perceived organizational support. Journal of Applied Psychology. 2001;86:42–51.

Eisenberger R, Huntington R, Hutchison S, Sowa D. Perceived organizational support. Journal of Applied Psychology. 1986;71:500–507.

Eisenberger R, Singlhamber F, Vandenberghe C, Sucharski I, Rhoades L. Perceived supervisor support: Contributions to perceived support and employee retention. Journal of Applied Psychology. 2002;87:565–573.

Ford MT, Heinen BA, Langkamer KL. Work and family satisfaction and conflict: A meta-analysis of cross-domain relations. Journal of Applied Psychology. 2007;91:57–80. Frone MR, Russell M, Cooper ML. Antecedents and outcomes of work-family conflict: Testing a model of the work-family interface. Journal of Applied Psychology. 1992;77:65–78.

Goff J, Mount MK, Jamison RL. Employer supported child care, work-family conflict, and absenteeism: A field study. Personnel Psychology. 1990;43:793–809.

Grandey AA, Cropanzano R. The conservation of resources model applied to work-family conflict and strain. Journal of Vocational Behavior. 1999;54:350–370.

Greenhaus JH, Beutell NJ. Sources of conflict between work and family roles. Academy of Management Review. 1985;10:76–88.

Hammer LB, Kossek EE, Bodner T, Anger K, Zimmerman K. Clarifying work–family intervention processes: The roles of work-family conflict and family supportive supervisor behaviors. Journal of Applied Psychology. 2011;96:134–150.

Hammer L, Kossek E, Yragui N, Bodner T, Hansen G. Development and validation of a multi-dimensional scale of family supportive supervisor behaviors (FSSB) Journal of Management. 2009;35:837–856.

Hedges L, Olksin I. Statistical methods for meta-analysis. Orlando, FL: Academic Press; 1985.

Hedges LV, Vevea JL. Fixed and random-effects models in meta-analysis. Psychological Methods. 1998;3:486–504.

Hogan J, Holland B. Using theory to evaluate personality and job-performance relations: A socioanalytic perspective. Journal of Applied Psychology. 2003;88:100–112.

Hobfoll SE. Conservation of resources: A new attempt at conceptualizing stress. American Psychologist. 1989;44:513–524.

House JS. Work stress and social support. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley; 1981.

Hunter J, Schmidt F. Methods of meta-analysis: Correcting error and bias in research findings. Newbury Park, CA: Sage; 1990.

Jex SM. Stress and job performance: Theory, research, and implications for managerial practice. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage; 1998.

Kahn RL, Wolfe DM, Quinn R, Snoek JD, Rosenthal RA. Organizational stress. New York, NY: Wiley; 1964.

Karasek R. Job demands, job decision latitude and mental strain: Implications for job redesign. Administrative Science Quarterly. 1979;24:285–306.

Kline R. Principles and practice of structural equation modeling. New York, NY: Guilford Press; 2005.

Kossek E, Distelberg B. Work and family employment policy for a transformed work force: Trends and themes. In: Crouter N, Booth A, editors. Work-life policies. Washington, DC: Urban Institute Press; 2009. pp. 3–51.

Kossek EE, Lewis S, Hammer L. Work-life initiatives and organizational change: Overcoming mixed messages to move from the margin to the mainstream. Human Relations. 2010;63:1–17.

Kossek EE, Colquitt J, Noe R. Caregiving decisions, well-being and performance: The effects of place and provider as a function of dependent type and work-family climates. Academy of Management Journal. 2001;44:29–44.

Kossek, EE, pichler, s., bodner, t., & hammer, l. b. (2011). workplace social support and work–family conflict: a meta-analysis clarifying the influence of general and work–family conflict supervisor and organizational support. Personnel psychology, 64(2), 289–313.

Kossek EE, Nichol V. The effects of employer-sponsored child care on employee attitudes and performance. Personnel Psychology. 1992;45:485–509.

Kossek EE, Ozeki C. Work-family conflict, policies, and the job-life satisfaction relationship: A review and directions for organizational behavior-human resources research. Journal of Applied Psychology. 1998;83:139–149.

Lapierre LM, Allen TD. Work-supportive family, family-supportive supervision, use of organizational benefits, and problem-focused coping: Implications for work-family conflict and employee well-being. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology. 2006;11(92):169–181.

Lipsey M, Wilson D. Practical meta-analysis. Newbury Park, CA: Sage; 2001.

Michel J, Michelson J, Pichler S, Cullen K. Clarifying relationships among work and family social support, stressors, and work–family conflict. Journal of Vocational Behavior. 2010;76:91–104.

Poelmans S. Work and family: An international research perspective. Mahwah, NJ: LEA/now part of Taylor and Francis; 2005.

Rhoades L, Eisenberger R. Perceived organizational support: A review of the literature. Journal of Applied Psychology. 2002;87:698–714

Rosenthal R, Rubin D. Meta-analytic procedures for combing studies with multiple effect sizes. Psychological Bulletin. 1986;99:400–406.

Thomas LT, Ganster DC. Impact of family-supportive work variables on work-family conflict and strain: A control perspective. Journal of Applied Psychology. 1995;80(1):6–15.

Thompson CA, Beauvais LL, Lyness KS. When work-family benefits are not enough: The influence of work-family culture on benefit utilization, organizational attachment, and work-family conflict. Journal of Vocational Behavior. 1999;54:392–415.

Thompson CA, Jahn EI, Kopelman RE, Prottas DJ. Perceived organizational family support: A longitudinal and multilevel analysis. Journal of Managerial Issues. 2004;16(4):454–465.

Viswesvaran C, Ones DS. Theory testing: Combining psychometric meta-analysis and structural equations modeling. Personnel Psychology. 1995;48:865–887.

Viswesvaran C, Sanchez JI, Fisher J. The role of social support in the process of work stress: A meta-analysis. Journal of Vocational Behavior. 1999;54:314–334.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2018 Sobhani Aliasgar

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

The research works published in this journal are free to be accessed. They can be shared (copied and redistributed in any medium or format) and\or adapted (remixed, transformed, and built upon the material for any purpose, commercially and\or not commercially) under the following terms: attribution (appropriate credit must be given indicating original authors, research work name and publication name mentioning if changes were made) and without adding additional restrictions (without restricting others from doing anything the actual license permits). Authors retain the full copyright of their published research works and cannot revoke these freedoms as long as the license terms are followed.

Copyright © 2015-2018. European Journal of Management and Marketing Studies (ISSN 2501 - 9988) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing GroupAll rights reserved.

This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library. All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms. All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and standards formulated by Budapest Open Access Initiative (2002), the Bethesda Statement on Open Access Publishing (2003) and  Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities (2003) and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Copyrights of the published research works are retained by authors.