Erastus Ngura Odhiambo, Jeniffer Wanjiru Muriuki


The recent Covid-19 crisis has wreaked havoc in the performance of businesses in the whole world. The most hit is the hospitality industry, especially the bar & restaurant businesses, which are considered high human density areas. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to examine the survival strategies influencing the performance of bar & restaurant businesses in Nairobi County, Kenya, in the face of a crisis like the covid-19 pandemic. The outcome of this study was useful in countering the negative effects of future crises in Nairobi County as well as the rest of the nation. The study was based on diffusion of innovation theory and business resilience theory. The specific objectives of the study were to investigate the extent of strategic management adoption, assess the extent of technology/innovation adoption, ascertain the influence of diversification, and examine the influence of social media networking on the performance of bar & restaurant businesses in the face of crisis. The population under study was a total of 6,383 licensed bar & restaurant businesses in Nairobi County. The project adopted a survey research design and simple random sampling technique to select a sample that was representative of the whole population. The study targeted 100 respondents from a sample of 100 bar & restaurants within Nairobi County. The survey used both questionnaires and observation as the main methods of data collection. The researcher then analyzed the data using descriptive statistics and multiple linear regression models and used textual explanation, and charts to present the results appropriately. The study also sought to examine the influence of social media on the performance of bar & restaurant businesses during the crisis in Nairobi County. It noted that the p-value of the social media adoption stood at 0.131 indicating that the social media adoption did not have a statistically significant influence on the performance of bar & restaurant businesses. The study thus found that social media adoption as a variable did not have a statistically significant influence on the performance of bar & businesses.


Article visualizations:

Hit counter


influence of social media, performance of bar & restaurants, Covid-19 crisis

Full Text:



Al-Ansari, Y., Altalib, M., & Sardoh, M. (2013). Technology orientation, innovation and business performance: A study of Dubai SMEs. The International Technology Management Review, 3(1), 1-11.

Am, J. B., Furstenthal, L., Jorge, F., & Roth, E. (2020). Innovation in a crisis: Why it is more critical than ever. Retrieved June, 17, 2021.

Bartik A., Bertrand M., Cullen Z. et al. (2020). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America vol. 117 issue 30 (2020) pp: 17656-17666 Published by National Academy of Sciences

Business Daily (2019, September 17). Business News. Retrieved from, https://www.businessdailyafrica.com/bd/news/board-proposes-limiting-number-of-bars-in-nairobi-to-3-000-2244760, Accessed on 2 September 2021

Business Daily (2019, February 14). Tax Collection in Corporates. Retrieved July 12, 2021, from Business Daily. www.businessdaily.co.ke

Buzzanell, P. M. (2010). Resilience: Talking, resisting, and imagining new normalcies into being. Journal of Communication, 60(1), 1-14.

Chaneta, I. (2007). Strategic Management Process, Journal of Comprehensive Research, Vol.5, 17-25

Dhliwayo, R. (2020). Articulating the Pathways of the Socio-Economic Impact of the Coronavirus (COVID-19) Pandemic on the Kenyan Economy.

European Commission (2009). Occasional Paper: Impact of the current economic and financial crisis on potential output, European Commission

Fernández-Miguélez, S. M., Díaz-Puche, M., Campos-Soria, J. A., & Galán-Valdivieso, F. (2020). The impact of social media on restaurant corporations’ financial performance. Sustainability, 12(4), 1646

Freeman, I. (2002). "Boogie nights", Leisure Management, Vol. 22 No.5, pp.50.

Gathii, J. K., Wamukuru, D. K., Karanja, D., Muriithi, W., & Maina, K. (2019). Research Methods, Data Analysis & Defences (Building Competences in Education & Social Sciences Research). (1st ed.). Education and Social Sciences Research Association of Kenya (ESSRAK).

Gideon, L. (Ed.). (2012). Handbook of survey methodology for the social sciences. New York: Springer.

Gondwe, G. (2020). Assessing the impact of COVID-19 on Africa’s economic development, Retrieved from: https://unctad.org/en/pages/PublicationWebflyer.aspx?publicationid=2834 Accessed on 19 September 2020.

Goryushkina, N., Petrova, L., Khudyakova, T., Tchuykova, N., Klimovskikh, N., & Voinova, N. (2019). Diversification and its role in improving hotel industry businesses competitiveness. International Journal of Recent Technology and Engineering, 8(4), 605-609

Helmreich, J. E. (2016). Regression Modelling Strategies with Applications to Linear Models, Logistic and Ordinal Regression and Survival Analysis. Journal of Statistical Software, 70(2), 1–4.

Hoang, T. G., Truong, N. T., & Nguyen, T. M. (2021). The survival of hotels during the COVID-19 pandemic: a critical case study in Vietnam. Service Business, 15(2), 209-229.

Hwang, J., Eves, A., & Stienmetz, J. L. (2021). The Impact of Social Media Use on Consumers’ Restaurant Consumption Experiences: A Qualitative Study. Sustainability, 13(12), 6581.

Kihanya, G. M. (2015). Strategies used by alcoholic drinks Businesses in Nyeri Town Sub-County to cope with Competition in the Liquor Industry in Kenya (Doctoral dissertation).

KNBS. (2019). Kenya population and housing census volume 1: population by county and sub-county. Government Press, Kenya

Kothari, C. R., & Gaurav, G. (Ed.). (2019). Research Methodology: Methods and Techniques (4th Ed). New Delhi India: New Age International.

Lau, A. (2020). New technologies used in COVID-19 for business survival: Insights from the Hotel Sector in China. Information Technology & Tourism, 22(4), 497-504.

Le, H. (2019). Literature review on diversification strategy, enterprise core competence and enterprise performance. American Journal of Industrial and Business Management, 9(1), 91-108.

Maina, K. (2021). A Guide to Linear Regression Analysis in Thesis Writing for Social Sciences. African Online School of Applied Research Skills.

Makungu, T. M. (2011). Marketing strategies used by entertainment spots in small towns in Kenya a case of bars and nightclubs in Voi municipality (Doctoral dissertation, University of Nairobi).

McKinsey (18th August, 2021). COVID-19: Implications for business. Retrieved from https://www.mckinsey.com/business-functions/risk-and-resilience/our-insights/covid-19-implications-for-business. Accessed on 15th September 2021.

Ministry of Health (2020). Guidelines for Food Business Operators (FBOs) on re-opening of restaurants and eateries during Covid-19 pandemic, Government Press, Nairobi

Mugenda, O. & Mugenda A. (2003). Research methods: quantitative and qualitative approaches.

Mutisya, L. (2017). Strategic Responses and Performance of International Hotels in Nairobi (Doctoral dissertation, University of Nairobi).

NACADA. (2017). Annual Report for the Office of the National Campaign Against Drug Abuse. Nairobi: Government Printers.

Nairobi County Government (2021). [Nairobi County Government Management Information Systems] [Unpublished raw data].

Odoyo, C. O. (2012). Assessment of Growth and Competitive Strategies Adopted In Out-Of-Home Food Outlets: A Case of Fast Food Restaurants in Nairobi (Doctoral dissertation, Daystar University, School of Business and Economics.)

Oladimeji, M. S., & Udosen, I. (2019). The effect of diversification strategy on organizational performance. Journal of Competitiveness, 11(4), 120.

Palepu, K. (1985). Diversification strategy, profit performance and the entropy measure. Strategic management journal, 6(3), 239-255.

Quaife, M., Van Zandvoort, K., Gimma, A., Shah, K. et al. (2020). The impact of COVID-19 control measures on social contacts and transmission in Kenyan informal settlements. BMC medicine, 18(1), 1-11.

Rodriguez Anton J., Alonso Almeida M. (2020). COVID-19 impacts and recovery strategies: The case of the hospitality industry in Spain, Sustainability (Switzerland)

Rogers, E. (2003). Diffusion of Innovations. Fifth edition. Free Press: New York.

Senge, P. M. (1990). The art and practice of the learning organization.

Simon, M. (2011). Assumptions, limitations and delimitations.

Stead, J. G., & Stead, W. E. (2014). Sustainable strategic management. Routledge

Sutcliffe, K. M. (2003). Organizing for resilience. Positive organizational scholarship: Foundations of a new discipline

Timilsina, M. (2017). Impacts of social media in restaurant businesses: A case study of restaurants based on Oulu region.

Waithaka, E. (2017). A Study of Critical Success Factors Affecting Small and Medium Enterprises in Nairobi County: A Case Study of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Nairobi City Central Business District (Doctoral dissertation, United States International University-Africa).

Wheaton, B., & Young, M. (2020). Understanding Regression Models: Statistics for Longitudinal and Contextual Analysis. SAGE Publications.

Wheelen, T. L. & Hunger J. D. (2012). Strategic Management and Business Policy: Toward Global Sustainability (13th ed.), New Jersey, NJ: Prentice Hall, 56

World Bank (2020). Global Economic Prospects. Pandemic, Recession: The Global Economy in Crisis Washington DC: World Bank Group.

World Health Organization (2020). Covid-19 Strategy Update: Overcoming Covid-19, Geneva, Switzerland.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.46827/ejmms.v7i3.1266


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2022 Erastus Ngura Odhiambo, Jeniffer Wanjiru Muriuki

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

The research works published in this journal are free to be accessed. They can be shared (copied and redistributed in any medium or format) and\or adapted (remixed, transformed, and built upon the material for any purpose, commercially and\or not commercially) under the following terms: attribution (appropriate credit must be given indicating original authors, research work name and publication name mentioning if changes were made) and without adding additional restrictions (without restricting others from doing anything the actual license permits). Authors retain the full copyright of their published research works and cannot revoke these freedoms as long as the license terms are followed.

Copyright © 2017-2023. European Journal of Management and Marketing Studies (ISSN 2501 - 9988) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing GroupAll rights reserved.

This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library. All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms. All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and standards formulated by Budapest Open Access Initiative (2002), the Bethesda Statement on Open Access Publishing (2003) and  Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities (2003) and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Copyrights of the published research works are retained by authors.