EXTRINSIC FACTORS INFLUENCING THE JOB MOTIVATION OF PUBLIC SECTOR HEALTH CARE WORKERS IN NAKURU COUNTY, KENYA

Grace Watiri Githatu

Abstract


Diverse factors provide indicators of job motivation challenges amongst healthcare workers. These factors include the high level of employee turnover. For example, in 2017, an estimated 700 doctors quit employment in government-run hospitals. Additionally, the Kenya Medical Practitioners and Dentist Union (KMPDU) estimated that up to 2,300 doctors had left devolved sector employment between 2014 and 2016 for private sector engagement or further education abroad. Moreover, the various groups of healthcare workers including doctors, nurses, and clinical officers have held numerous industrial strikes against their employers. Consequently, this study seeks to study the factors influencing job motivation in the healthcare public sector. The study is based on Herzberg’s 2-factor theory that splits factors affecting employee job motivation as extrinsic and motivating factors. The study used a descriptive research design and the target population was health workers in Nakuru County Public health facilities including doctors, clinical officers, laboratory technicians, pharmacists and nurses. The study population was 1756 respondents. The sample size of this study, using Taro Yamane’s (1967) formula, was 326 respondents. The correlation between diverse factors and job motivation was examined. The study found a strong positive correlation between extrinsic factors and job motivation (r = 0.633, p value = 0.000). The regression analysis results revealed that a unit increase in extrinsic factors is associated with a 0.318 increase in job motivation levels.

 

Article visualizations:

Hit counter


Keywords


extrinsic factors, job motivation factors, supervisory relation

Full Text:

PDF

References


Abd-Elrhaman, E. S. A., & Abd-Allah, N. A. (2018). Transformational Leadership Transformational Leadership Educational Program for Head Nurses and Its Effect on Nurses’ Job Performance. American Journal of Nursing Science, 7(4), 127–136.

Aguinis, H., Joo, H., & Gottfredson, R. K. (2013). What Monetary Rewards Can and Cannot Do: How to Show Employees the Money. Business Horizons, 56(2), 241–249.

Aklilu, A., Hussien, S., Abate, K., Girma, Y., & Ololo, S. (2015). Healthcare Workers & Apos; Perceptions Towards Hospital Leadership and Institutional Structure in Chiro and Gelemso Hospitals, West Hararghe Zone, East Ethiopia. Science Journal of Public Health, 3(5), 744–751.

Alnasrallah, Y. (2016). Employee Motivation and Performance. International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, 7(1), 788–790.

Alromaihi, M. A., Alshomaly, Z. A., & George, S. (2017). Job Satisfaction and Employee Performance: A Theoretical Review. International Academic Journal of Human Resource and Business Administration, 6(1), 1–20.

Anwar, G., & Shukur, I. (2015). Job Satisfaction and Employee Turnover Intention: A Case Study of Private Hospital in Erbil. International Journal of Social Sciences & Educational Studies, 2(1), 73–80.

Anwar, M., Chandrarin, G., Darsono, J. T., & Respati, H. (2017). Lecturer Job Performance Study: Motivation, Emotional Intelligence, Organizational Culture and Transformational Leadership as Antecedents with Job Satisfaction as an Intervening. IOSR Journal of Business and Management (IOSR-JBM, 19(6), 1–9.

Apedzi, A. K. (2019). An Assessment of Health Worker’s View on the Current Single Spine Pay Policy. A Case Study on Doctors and Nurses in Greater Accra Region, Ghana. Journal of Scientific & Technical Research, 20(5), 15471–15479.

Bano, K., Ishrat, A., & Mishra, K. K. (2019). Factors Affecting Organizational Commitment of Teachers in Government and Private Universities. International Journal of Scientific and Technology Research, 8(11), 138–152.

Borgohain, H., & Saikia, J. P. (2017). Job Satisfaction of Anganwadi Workers: A Study in Sivasagar District of Assam. International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology, 6(9), 19372–19381.

Borromeo, R. A., & Lufungula, A. R. (2019). The Correlates of Human Capital and Organizational Performance: Empirical Evidence from North-Kivu Hospitals in D. R. Congo. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 9(12), 177–194.

Brase, C. H., & Brase, C. P. (2009). Understandable Statistics: Concepts and Methods (9th Ed.). Houghton Mifflin Company.

Chatterjee, P. (2017). Job Satisfaction, Occupational Stress and Work Motivation: A Comparative Analysis Among the Banking and Academic Sector Professionals. IOSR Journal of Business and Management (IOSR-JBM), 19(3), 30–43.

Collins, S., Collins, S., & Matthews, E. P. (2015). A Mini-Study of Employee Turnover in Us Hospitals. Southern Illinois University Carbondale, 32(3), 23–27.

Daneshkohan, A., Zarei, E., Mansouri, T., Maajani, K., Ghasemi, M. S. Iyaha., & Rezaeian, M. (2015). Factors Affecting Job Motivation among Health Workers: A Study from Iran. Global Journal of Health Science, 7(3), 153–160.

Ebby, S. (2017). Influence of Work Environment on Teacher Performance in Public Secondary Schools: A Case Study of Bungoma South Sub County, Kenya. Unpublished Masters’ Thesis: University of Nairobi.

Eltarhuni, A., & Alaqeli, E. (2017). Impact of Incentives on Physicians’ Performance at Pediatric Hospital in Benghazi. IOSR Journal of Nursing and Health Science (IOSR-JNHS), 6(4), 32–35.

Fox, J. (2015). Applied Regression Analysis and Generalized Linear Models |. Sage Publications Inc.

Gachengo, V., & Wekesa, S. (2017). Influence of Motivation on Employee Performance: A Case of National Bank of Kenya. International Journal of Business Management and Social Research, 3(2), 179–185.

Gathii, K. J., Wamukuru, D. K., Karanja, D., Muriithi, W., & Maina, K. (2019). Research Methods, Data Analysis & Defences (Building Competences in Education & Social Sciences Research). Nakuru, Kenya: Education and Social Sciences Research Association of Kenya (ESSRAK).

Gemeda, F. T., & Tynjälä, P. (2015). Exploring Teachers’ Motivation for Teaching and Professional Development in Ethiopia: Voices from The Field. Journal of Studies in Education, 5(2), 169–175.

Hadjiphanis, L. (2012). Examining Employee Motivation in Large Scale Organizations in Cyprus. Journal of Business Administration, 3(4), 25–32.

Hee, O. C., Shen, W. Y., Lun, L. P., Lee, S. L., Ming, Y. C., & Wahab, M. A. A. (2019). Human Resource Management Practices and Career Satisfaction in the Manufacturing Industry in Malaysia. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 9(3), 383–391.

Hui, C. Y., Ching, C. S., Chin, L. Y., Yi, T. Z., & Chen, T. W. (2012). Relationship between Incentives and Employee Engagement: An Empirical Study on Employees in Manufacturing Companies. Journal of Business & Economic Policy, 3(4), 65–74.

Idiegbeyan-ose, J., Aregbesola, A., Owolabi, S. E., & Eyiolorunshe, T. (2019). Relationship Between Motivation and Job Satisfaction of Staff in Private University Libraries, Nigeria. Academy of Strategic Management Journal, 18(1), 1–13.

Irimu, G., Ogero, M., Mbevi, G., Kariuki, C., Gathara, D., Akech, S., … Mbevi, G. (2018). Tackling Health Professionals’ Strikes: An Essential Part of Health System Strengthening in Kenya. BMJ Global Health, 3(6), 1–5.

Islam, R., & Hossain, M. (2018). Job Satisfaction of Academic Staff; An Empirical Research Study on Selected Private Educational Institute at Dhaka City Corporation. Global Journal of Management and Business Research: An Administration and Management, 18(3), 9–15.

Isse, H., Abdirahman, H., Najeemdeen, I. S., Abidemi, T., & Ahmad, R. B. (2018). The Relationship Between Job Satisfaction, Work-Life Balance and Organizational Commitment on Employee Performance. IOSR Journal of Business and Management (IOSR-JBM), 20(5), 76–81.

Jayewardenepura, S. R. I., & Lanka, S. R. I. (2017). Financial Incentives Impact on Employee Motivation: A Study in University of Sri Jayewardenepura Sri Lanka. International Journal of Research in Finance and Marketing (IJRFM), 7(3), 1–8.

Jha, R., Pandey, D. K., & Vashisht, A. (2016). A Study on Employee Performance Appraisal and Job Satisfaction in Health Care Sector. IJARIIE, 2(5), 988–994.

Karim, N., Khan, R. A., & Shamim, A. (2017). Determinants of Job Satisfaction in Schools of Agha Khan Education Board, Karachi. GMJACS, 7(1), 37–47.

Kassa, T. (2015). Employee Motivation and Its Effect on Employee Retention in Ambo Mineral Water Factory. International Journal of Advance Research in Computer Science and Management Studies. 3(3): 10 - 21.

Kemunto, M. E. (2018). Influence of Teaching Experience on Job Satisfaction of Secondary School Teachers in Kenya. Education Research International, 8(9), 668–687.

Khuong, M. N., & Hoang, D. T. (2015). The Effects of Leadership Styles on Employee Motivation in Auditing Companies in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. International Journal of Trade, Economics and Finance, 6(4), 210–217.

Kibwana, S., Yigzaw, M., Molla, Y., Roosmalen, J. Van, & Stekelenburg, J. (2018). Job Satisfaction among Anesthetists in Ethiopia—A National Cross-Sectional Study. International Journal of Health Planning and Management, 33(4), 1–11.

Kimaite, N. (Uganda T. and M. U. (2016). Corporate Governance and Organizational Performance of Commercial Banks in Uganda: A Case of Stanbic Bank Uganda Limited. Unpublished Thesis: Uganda Technology and Management University.

Kimathi, L. (2017). Challenges if the Devolved Health Sector in Kenya: Teething Problems or Systemic Contradictions? Africa Development, 42(1), 55–77.

Kiplangat, M. C. (2018). The Influence of Human Resource Practices on Performance of Faith Based Health Facilities in Kajiado County. Unpublished Master Thesis: Strathmore University.

Kumar, S. (2016). Empirical Analysis of Job Satisfaction in Relation to Motivation. IOSR Journal of Business and Management, 01(01), 105–114.

Kutardina, A. (2017). Nurses And Staff Turnover Intentions in Private Hospitals. Advances in Intelligent Systems Research, 131(ICOI), 98–103.

Lukwago, G., Basheka, B., & Odubuker, E. (2015). Developing A Construct Validity Under Herzberg’s Theory for Motivation of Employees in The National Agricultural Research Organization (Naro) – Uganda: An Exploration of Motivational Factors Affecting Agricultural Research Organizations in Sub-Sahara. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 5(9), 273–281.

Majau, D. K., & Wanjohi, J. (2019). Factors Influencing Employee Job Performance in County Government Departmental Projects: A Case of Meru County Government, Kenya. International Academic Journal of Information Sciences and Project Management, 3(4), 518–543.

Merga, A. (2017). A Study on the Assessment of Attitude and Factors Affecting Job Satisfaction among Nurses Working in Emergency Room of Aabet and Alert Hospitals, Addis Ababa. Unpublished Thesis: Addis Ababa University.

Mete, E. S. (2017). The Path Extended from Organizational Culture to Innovative Work Behavior: A Research on a Defense Company. Journal of Business Research - Turk, 9(1), 403–428.

Mohammed, A., & El-Jajah, G. W. (2019). Payment of Teachers’ Salary and Promotion as Correlate of Teachers’ Job Performance in Senior Secondary Schools in Adamawa State, Nigeria. International Journal of Philosophy and Social-Psychological Sciences, 5(4), 39–46.

Morais, N. (2019). A Study on the Effect of The Hygiene Factors on Overall Job Satisfaction of The Employees in Airline Industry. Colombo Journal of Advanced Research, 1(1), 147–161.

Msengeti, D. M. (2015). Effects of Pay and Work Environment on Employee Retention: A Study of Hotel Industry in Mombasa, 5(4), 1–10.

Namwagwe, J. (2017). Work Environment, Performance Appraisal Management, and Job Satisfaction Among Support Staff at A Public University in Uganda. Unpublished Thesis: Busitema University.

Namwagwe, J., Atibuni, D. Z., & Sekiwu, D. (2017). Mediation Effect of Performance Appraisal Management on The Work Environment – Job Satisfaction Relationship among Support Staff in A University in Uganda. African Educational Research Journal, 5(4), 246–253.

NataRajan, S. D., & Palanissamy, A. (2015). Employee Motivation & Encouraging Retention in The Workplace: A Critical Study. International Journal of Management Sciences, 5(10), 709–715.

Neuman, W. L. (2014). Social Research Methods: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches. Harlow: Pearson Education Limited.

Ngaruiya, J. K., & Oloko, M. (2015). Effects of Motivation on Employee Productivity in Large Flower, 4(7), 50–67.

Nguyen, T.-L., & Giang, P. X. (2019). Improving Employee Performance in Industrial Parks: An Empirical Case of Garment Enterprises in Binh Duong Province, Vietnam. European Journal of Investigation in Health, Psychology and Education, 10(1), 44–58.

Njoroge, C. N., & Yazdanifard, R. (2014). The Impact of Social and Emotional Intelligence on Employee Motivation in A Multigenerational Workplace. Global Journal of Management and Business Research: An Administration and Management, 14(3), 31–36.

Novianty, R. R., & Evita, S. N. (2018). Financial Incentives: The Impact on Employee Motivation. Academy of Strategic Management Journal, 17(6), 1–8.

Ntui, A. M. (2018). Performance Management in State Universities in Cameroon: An Administrator’s Perspective. Research Journal of Education, 4(4), 51–58.

Nyongesa, R. N. (2018). Perceived Influence of Work Environment Factors on Organizational Commitment among the Millennials in The Banking Industry in Kisumu City – Kenya; A Research Project Submitted in Partial Fulfilment of The Requirement for the Award of the Degree of Master.

Ochola, G. O. (2018). Employee Motivation, An Organizational Performance Improvement Strategy (A Review on Influence of Employee Motivation on Organizational Performance). JOJ Science, 1(5), 1–6. https://doi.org/10.19080/jojs.2018.01.555575

Okanga, D. A., & Kamara, M. (2017). Influence of Staff Motivation on the Performance of Thika Level 5 Hospital in Kenya Dorcas Akoth Okanga, Dr. M. Kamara. The Strategic Journal of Business & Change Management, 4(2), 481–495.

Onanda, B. (2015). The Effects of Motivation on Job Performance A Case Study of Kcb Coast Region. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, 5(10), 547–623.

Owino, C. A., Oluoch, M., & Kimemia, F. (2019). Influence of Performance Management Systems on Employee Productivity in County Referral Hospitals of Kiambu County Influence of Performance Management Systems on Employee Productivity in County Referral Hospitals of Kiambu County, 9(3).

Panchal, I. (2016). The Impact of Job Satisfaction; While Performing Responsibilities, 1859–1866.

Partono Prasetio, A., Yuniarsih, T., & Ahman, E. (2017). Job Satisfaction, Organizational Commitment, and Organizational Citizenship Behaviour in State-Owned Banking. Universal Journal of Management, 5(1), 32–38. https://doi.org/10.13189/ujm.2017.050104

Paulson, D. S. (2006). Handbook of Regression and Modeling. Handbook of Regression and Modeling. https://doi.org/10.1201/9781420017380

Pawirosumarto, S., Sarjana, P. K., & Gunawan, R. (2017). The Effect of Work Environment, Leadership Style, And Organizational Culture Towards Job Satisfaction and Its Implication Towards Employee Performance in Parador Hotels and Resorts, Indonesia. https://doi.org/10.1108/ijlma-10-2016-0085

Peter, S. (2019). The Relationship Between Job Satisfaction and Job Performance among University Academic Staff in Tanzania, (February).

Plessis, A. J., Douangphichit, N., Dodd, P., J. Du Plessis, A., Douangphichit, N., & Dodd, P. (2016). HRM In Relation to Employee Motivation and Job Performance in The Hospitality Industry. Journal of International Business Research and Marketing, 1(4), 12–21. https://doi.org/10.18775/jibrm.1849-8558.2015.14.3002

Prasetio, A., Yuniarsih, T., Ahman, E., & Sary, F. (2017). Mediating role of Job Satisfaction in The Relation of Work-Life Balance and Organizational Commitment, 6(2), 37–43.

Qureshi, M. A., Hamid, K. B. A., Jeihoony, P., Ali, R., Brohi, N. A., Magsi, R., & Shah, S. M. M. (2018). Is Supervisor Support Matter in Job Satisfaction? A Moderating Role of Fairness Perception Among Nurses, 17(6), 1–10.

Qureshi, M. A., & Hamid, K. Bin A. (2019). Impact Of Job Clarity on Nurses’ Job Satisfaction: A Moderating Role of Fairness Perception. International Business Research, 12(4), 187. https://doi.org/10.5539/ibr.v12n4p187

Rajan D. (2017). Employee turnover and employee performance: a comparative study among nurses. MOJ App Bio Biomech. 2017;1(5):161–173. DOI: 10.15406/mojabb.2017.01.00025

Rasdi, R. M., & Chen, Y. S. (2018). People Management for Managing Employees’ Retention in The Organizations People Management F Or Managing Employees’ Retention in The Organizations, 8(12), 499–509. https://doi.org/10.6007/ijarbss/v8-i12/5048

Rastgoo, P. (2016). The Relationship of Talent Management and Organizational Development with Job Motivation of Employees. Acta Universitatis Agriculturae Et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis, 64(2), 653–662. https://doi.org/10.11118/actaun201664020653

Rismawati, Gani, M. U., Sukmawati, S., & Zakaria, J. (2015). An Examination of The Work Culture, Motivation, Quality of Work Life on The Relations between Job Performance and Job Satisfaction. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science Invention 4(9), 2319–7722.

Saad, D. D. M. Z. Bin S. (2018). Impact of Employee Motivation on Work Performance. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications (IJSRP), 8(3), 295–308.

Saqar, S., & Al, O. (2016). Factors Influencing Organization Commitments: A Review of Recent Study, 6(7), 241–246. https://doi.org/10.6007/ijarbss/v6-i7/2244

Shalonda, S. (2019). Factors Influencing Job Satisfaction of Registered Nurses Working in Public Hospitals, (April).

Shumba, C. S., Kielmann, K., & Witter, S. (2017). Health Workers’ Perceptions of Private-Not-For-Profit Health Facilities’ Organizational Culture and Its Influence on Retention in Uganda. BMC Health Services Research, 17(1), 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-017-2763-5

Sikwela, S. (2016). Employee Retention Strategies for Medical Staff in Public Hospitals: The Case of Potchefstroom Hospital. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/10394/25853

Smith, C. L. (2014). Employee Recognition at Work: A Study of Employee Experiences Charlotte Lucy Smith University of York Management, (September).

Suhepi, A., & Syah, T. Y. R. (2018). The Influence of Training Design, Individual Characteristics, and Work Environment on Training Transfer and Its Impact on Employee’s Performance. International Journal of Economics, Commerce and Management United Kingdom, vi(3), 103–123. Retrieved from http://ijecm.co.uk/

Wilson, H., Keating, B., & Beal-Hodges, M. (2012). Regression Analysis: Understanding and Building Business and Economic Models Using Excel. Business Expert.

World Health Organization. (2014). A Universal Truth: No Health without A Workforce.

World Health Organization. (2019). Poverty and Health.

Yamane, Y. (1967). Statistics: An Introductory Analysis (2nd Ed.). New York: Harper and Row.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.46827/ejmms.v7i4.1289

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2022 Grace Watiri Githatu

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

The research works published in this journal are free to be accessed. They can be shared (copied and redistributed in any medium or format) and\or adapted (remixed, transformed, and built upon the material for any purpose, commercially and\or not commercially) under the following terms: attribution (appropriate credit must be given indicating original authors, research work name and publication name mentioning if changes were made) and without adding additional restrictions (without restricting others from doing anything the actual license permits). Authors retain the full copyright of their published research works and cannot revoke these freedoms as long as the license terms are followed.

Copyright © 2015-2018. European Journal of Management and Marketing Studies (ISSN 2501 - 9988) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing GroupAll rights reserved.

This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library. All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms. All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and standards formulated by Budapest Open Access Initiative (2002), the Bethesda Statement on Open Access Publishing (2003) and  Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities (2003) and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Copyrights of the published research works are retained by authors.