Zhang Zhong Yang, Jacquline Tham, S. M. Ferdous Azam


The purpose of this paper is to determine the negative psychological factors and online shopping behaviour. This is a review paper among college students’ at Tongren city in China. This study will significantly contribute in dealing with challenges that are prevailing in the e-commerce market, and online retailers have to understand E-commerce market, buyers’ behaviour and to consider all factors that will affect online shopping in order to develop better strategies to retain existing customers and attract more potential buyers. Consumer buying behaviour is affected by many variables, ranging from personal motivations, needs, attitudes and values, socioeconomic and cultural values, age, gender, professional status to social influences of various kinds exerted by family, friends, colleagues and society as a whole (Solomon, 2004). Studying various factors affecting online shopping will help online retailers to understand the association between factors and consumer buying behaviour. In this context, research is aimed to study the various factors affecting negative psychological factors affecting online shopping among college students in Tongren University.


Article visualizations:

Hit counter



negative psychological factors, online shopping behaviour, college students’, Tongren city, China

Full Text:



Al Shehhi and Azam, S. M. F. (2019a). Total Quality Management and Project Management towards Organisational Success of Agriculture and Fisheries in Sultanate of Oman: A Measurement Model, European Journal of Management and Marketing Studies, 4 (1): 1-17

Al Shehhi and Azam, S. M. F. (2019b). Developing and Validating the TQM Framework in the Sultanate of Oman Agriculture and Fisheries Context, European Journal of Economic and Financial Research, 3(4): 30-42

Al Shehhi and Azam, S. M. F. (2019c). Measuring the Mediating Role of Project Management between Total Quality Management and Organisational Success in Sultanate of Oman, European Journal of Human Resource Management Studies, 2(2): 45-58

Alter, A. L. and D. M. Oppenheimer (2009). Uniting the tribes of fluency to form a metacognitive nation. Personality and Social Psychology Review 13 (3), 219–235.

Amazon (2018). Product Image Requirements. URL: (visited on 04/06/2018).

Anesbury, Z., Nenycz-Thiel, M., Dawes, J. And Kennedy, R. 2015. How do shoppers behave online? An observational study of online grocery shopping. Journal of Consumer Behaviour 15: 1–11.

Azam, S. M. F. and Moha Asri A. (2015). Differential Roles between Owner and Manager in Financial Practice That Contributes to Business Success: An Analysis on Malaysian Small Business, Academic Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies, 4 (1 S2): 123-134

Azam, S. M. F., Haque, A., Sarwar, A. and Anwar, N. (2014). Training Program Effectiveness of Service Initiators: Measuring Perception of Female Employees of Bank Using Logistic Approach, Asian Research Journal of Business Management, 1 (2): 98-108

Babin, L. A. and A. C. Burns, (1997). Effects of print ad pictures and a copy contains instructions to imagine on the mental imagery that mediates attitudes. Journal of Advertising 26 (3), 33–44.

Brylla and Walsh / Isolated Product Depictions Twenty-Sixth European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS2018), Portsmouth, UK, 2018 13

Brylla and Walsh / Isolated Product Depictions Twenty-Sixth European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS2018), Portsmouth, UK, 2018 15

Castiello, U. (2001). Implicit processing of shadows. Vision Research 41 (18), 2305–2309.

Cavazza, N. and V. Gabrielli (2015). Affordant shapes of product holder influence product evaluation and purchase intention. Current Psychology 34 (2), 447–465.

Cerny, C. A. And Kaiser, H. F. (1977). A study of a measure of sampling adequacy for factor-analytic correlation matrices. Multivariate Behavioural Research, 12(1): 43–47.

Chaffey, D. (2018). Ecommerce conversion rates. URL: (visited on 04/05/2018).

Chai, C., et al., (2016) Gender differences in the effect of communication on college students’ online decisions. Computers in Human Behaviour. 65: p. 176-188.

Childers, T. L., Carr, C. L., Peck, J. And Carson, S., (2001). Hedonic and utilitarian motivations for online retail shopping behaviour. Journal of Retailing, 77(4): 511–535.

Chitika, (2013). The Value of Google Result Positioning. URL: (visited on 11/30/2017).

Chong, P. L., Ong, T. S., Abdullah, A. and Choo, W. C. (2019). Internationalisation and Innovation on Balanced Scorecard (BSC) among Malaysian Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs), Management Science Letters, 9(10): 1617–1632

Citrin, A. V., Stem, D., Spangenberg, E. R. And Clarck, M. J., (2003). Consumer need for tactile input: an internet retailing challenge. Journal of Business Research, 56(11): 915–922.

Clemes, M. D., C. Gan, and J. Zhang (2014). An empirical analysis of online shopping adoption in Beijing, China. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services. 21(3): p. 364-375.

Comegys, C. and M. L. Brennan (2003). Students’ online shopping behaviour: A dual-country perspective. Journal of Internet Coulter, K. S. and A. L. Roggeveen, (2014). Price number relationships and deal processing fluency: The effects of approximation sequences and number multiples. Journal of Marketing Research 51 (1), 69–82.

Darley, W. K., Blankson, C. and Luethge, D. J. (2010). Toward an integrated framework for online consumer behaviour and decision-making process: A review. Psychology & Marketing, 2(27): 94–116.

Davenport, J. L. (2007). Consistency effects between objects in scenes. Memory & Cognition 35 (3), 393–401.

De Graef, P., Christiaens, D., and G. d’Ydewalle (1990). Perceptual effects of scene context on object identification. Psychological Research 52 (4), 317–329.

De Silva, A. D. A., Khatibi, A. and Azam, S. M. F. (2017). Do the Demographic Differences Manifest in Motivation to Learn Science and Impact on Science Performance? Evidence from Sri Lanka, International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 16(S1), 47–67

Demangeot, C. and A. J. Broderick (2010). Consumer perceptions of online shopping environments: A gestalt approach. Psychology & Marketing 27 (2), 117–140.

Deng, X., Kahn, B. E., Unnava, H. R., and H. Lee (2016). A ‘wide’ variety: Effects of horizontal versus vertical display on assortment processing, perceived variety, and choice. Journal of Marketing Research 53 (5), 682-698.

Dewi, N, Azam, S. M. F. and Yusoff, S. K. M. (2019). Factors influencing the information quality of local government financial statement and financial accountability, Management Science Letters, 9 (9): 1373-1384.

Elder, R. S. and A. Krishna (2012). The “visual depiction effect” in advertising: Facilitating embodied mental simulation through product orientation. Journal of Consumer Research 38 (6), 988– 1003.

Engel, J. F., Blackwell, R. D. And Miniard, P. W. (1986). Consumer behaviour. 5th Edition. Hinsdale, IL: Dryden. EUROSTAT. 2004. Internet purchases by individuals. [Online]. Available at: [Accessed: 2018, January 8].

Epstein, R. and N. Kanwisher (1998). A cortical representation of the local visual environment. Nature 392, 598–601.

Etkin, J. and C. Mogilner (2016). Does variety among activities increase happiness? Journal of Consumer Research 43 (2), 210–229. Field, A. (2013). Discovering statistics using IBM SPSS statistics. London, UK: Sage.

Eurostat (2017). Digital economy & society in the EU: A browse through our online world in figures [Online]. Available at: [Accessed: 2018, January 8].

Fernando, W. H. M., Yusoff, S. K. M, Khatibi, A. and Azam S. M. F. (2019). A Review on Human Capital; Two Principal Ideas Predominantly Generic Human Capital and Specific Human Capital for Organizational Performance. European Journal of Economic and Financial Research, 3(5): 35-47

Flosi, S., Fulgoni, G., and A. Vollman (2013). If an advertisement runs online and no one sees it, is it still an ad? Journal of Advertising Research 53 (2), 192–199.

Friedman, A. (1979). Framing pictures: The role of knowledge in automatized encoding and memory for gist. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 108 (3), 316–355.

Grobelny, J. and R. Michalski (2015). The role of background color, interletter spacing, and font size on preferences in the digital presentation of a product. Computers in Human Behaviour 43, 85–100.

Gunasinghe, A., Hamid, J. A., Khatibi, A. and Azam S. M. F. (2019). Academicians’ Acceptance of Online Learning Environments: A Review of Information System Theories and Models. Global Journal of Computer Science and Technology, 19 (1-H): 30-39

Hair, J., Hult, G. T. M., Ringle, C. M. And Sarstedt, M. 2017. A Primer on Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling. 2nd Edition. Los Angeles: Sage.

Hand, C., Riley, F. D., Harris, P., Singh, J. And Rettie, R. (2009). Online grocery shopping: the influence of situational factors. European Journal of Marketing, 43(9): 1205–1219.

Haque A., Sarwar, A., Azam, S. M. F. and Yasmin, F. (2014), Total Quality Management Practices in the Islamic Banking Industry: Comparison between Bangladesh and Malaysian Islamic Bank, International Journal of Ethics in Social Sciences, 2 (1): 5-18.

Harel, A., Kravitz, D. J., and C. I. Baker (2013). Deconstructing visual scenes in cortex: Gradients of the object and spatial layout information. Cerebral Cortex 23 (4), 947–957.

Haur, C. H., Khatibi, A. and Azam, S. M. F. (2017), Antecedents of Consumers’ Perception towards Online Advertising in Malaysia: The Structure Equation Modeling Approach, European Journal of Management and Marketing Studies, 2 (3): 15-30

Hayes, A. F. (2013). Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: A regression-based approach. New York, NY: Guilford Press.

Henderson, J. M. (2003). Human gaze control during real-world scene perception. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 7 (11), 498–504.

Henderson, J. M. (2005). Introduction to real-world scene perception. Visual Cognition 12 (6), 849– 851.

Henderson, J. M. and A. Hollingworth (1999). High-level scene perception, Annual Review of Psychology 50 (1), 243–271.

Henderson, J. M. and F. Ferreira (2004). Scene perception for psycholinguists. In: the interface of language, vision, and action: Eye movements and the visual world. Ed. by J. M. Henderson and F. Ferreira. New York, NY: Psychology Press, pp. 1–58.

Hickey, C., Kaiser, D., and M. V. Peelen (2015). Reward guides attention to object categories in real world scenes. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 144 (2), 264–273.

Huang, Y. And Oppewal, H. (2006). Why consumers hesitate to shop online: An experimental choice analysis of grocery shopping and the role of delivery fees. International Journal of Retail and Distribution Management, 35(4/5): 334–353.

Im, H. and Y. Ha (2011). The effect of perceptual fluency and enduring involvement on situational involvement in an online apparel shopping context. Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management: An International Journal 15 (3), 345–362.

Im, H., Lennon, S. J., and L. Stoel (2010). The perceptual fluency effect on pleasurable online shopping experience. Journal of Research in Interactive Marketing 4 (4), 280–295.

Jarvenpaa, S. L. and P. A. Todd (1996). Consumer reactions to electronic shopping on the world wide web. International Journal of Electronic Commerce 1 (2), 59–88.

Kahn, B. E. (2017). Using visual design to improve customer perceptions of online assortments. Journal of Retailing 93 (1), 29–42.

Jayasuriya, N. A. and Azam, S. M. F. (2017). International Review of Management and Marketing, 7(5), 178-183.

Jiang, Z. and I. Benbasat (2007). Research note—investigating the influence of the functional mechanisms of online product presentations. Information Systems Research 18 (4), 454–470.

Justice (2013). Tesco Stores Čr, A.S. Report. Veřejný rejstřík a Sbírka listin. [Online]. Available at: [Accessed: 2018, January 19]. JUSTICE. 2014. Koloniá and koší foundation agreement. Veřejný rejstřík a Sbírka listin. [Online]. Available at: [Accessed: 2018, January 19].

Kacen, J. J., Hess, J. D. And Chiang, W. K. 2013. Bricks or Clicks? Consumer Attitudes toward Traditional Stores and Online Stores. Global Economics and Management Review, 18(1): 12–21.

Kahneman, D. (2003). A perspective on judgment and choice: mapping bounded rationality. American Psychologist 58 (9), 697–720.

Kämäräinen, V., Saranen, J. and Holmström, J. (2001). The reception box impact on home delivery efficiency in the e-grocery business. International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, 31(6): 414–426. Consumers’ Decision Making in Online Grocery Shopping: The Impact of Services Offered and... 1247

Kanapathipillai, K. and Azam S. M. F. (2019). A Conceptual Understanding of the Critical Factors That Induce Women Entrepreneurial Success In The Klang Valley, Malaysia, European Journal of Management and Marketing Studies, 4(2): 90-110

Katukurunda, K. G. W. K., Yajid, S. M. A, Khatibi, A. and Azam, S. M. F. (2019). Students’ Satisfaction towards Biosystems Technology; Does Programme Quality Matters? (Evidence from Sri Lankan Perspectives), European Journal of Open Education and E-learning Studies, 3 (2): 174-190.

Kondo, Y., Suzuki, M., Mugikura, S., Abe, N., Takahashi, S., Iijima, T., and T. Fujii, (2005). Changes in brain activation associated with the use of a memory strategy: A functional MRI study. Neuroimage 24 (4), 1154–1163. Lam, S. Y., Chau, A. W. L., and T. J. Wong (2007). Thumbnails as online product displays: how consumers process them, Journal of Interactive Marketing 21 (1), 36–59.

Kurnia, S., Chien, J. A. W. And Westarp, F. (2003). The Acceptance of Online Grocery Shopping. In: Proceedings of 16th Bled eCommerce Conference eTransformation. University of Maribor, 9–11 June. Slovenia: Faculty of Organizational Sciences, University of Maribor, pp. 219 -233.

Kuruwitaarachchi, N., Yajid, S. M. A, Khatibi, A. and Azam, S. M. F. (2019). Enhance the use of Internet Based Advanced Communication Technologies in Small and Medium Scale Enterprises in Sri Lanka, European Journal of Social Sciences Studies, 3 (2): 44-57

Lam, S. Y., Fu, H. Y., and D. Li (2017). The influence of thematic product displays on consumers: An elaboration-based account. Psychology & Marketing 34 (9), 868–883.

Landwehr, J. R., Labroo, A. A., and A. Herrmann (2011). Gut liking for the ordinary: incorporating design fluency improves automobile sales forecasts. Marketing Science 30 (3), 416–429.

Lantos, G. P. (2015). Consumer Behaviour in Action: Real-life Applications for Marketing Managers. New York: Routledge. Likert, R., 1932. A technique for the measurement of attitudes. Archives of psychology, 140(33): 1–55.

Lee, A. Y. and A. A. Labroo (2004). The effect of conceptual and perceptual fluency on brand evaluation. Journal of Marketing Research 41 (2), 151–165.

Leonhardt, J. M., Catlin, J. R., and D. M. Pirouz (2015). Is your product facing the ad’s center? facing direction affects processing fluency and ad evaluation. Journal of Advertising 44 (4), 315–325.

Lepkowska-White, E., Brashear, T. G., and M. G. Weinberger (2003). A test ad appeal effectiveness in Poland and the united states: The interplay of appeal, product, and culture. Journal of Advertising 32 (3), 57–66.

Li, H., Daugherty, T., and F. Biocca (2002). Impact of 3-d advertising on product knowledge, brand attitude, and purchase intention: the mediating role of presence. Journal of Advertising 31 (3), 43– 57. Brylla and Walsh / Isolated Product Depictions Twenty-Sixth European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS2018),

Maghfuriyah, A., Azam, S. M. F. and Shukri, S. (2019). Market Structure and Islamic Banking Performance in Indonesia: An Error Correction Model, Management Science Letters, 9 (9): 1407-1418

Malcolm, G. L., and S. Shomstein (2015). Object-based attention in real-world scenes. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 144 (2), 257–263.

Mandel, N. and E. J. Johnson (2002). When web pages influence choice: Effects of visual primes on experts and novices. Journal of Consumer Research 29 (2), 235–245.

McDowell, W. C., Wilson, R. C., and C. O. Kile Jr (2016). An examination of retail website design and conversion rate. Journal of Business Research 69 (11), 4837–4842.

Meyers-Levy, J. and L. A. Peracchio (1995). Understanding the effects of colour: How the correspondence between available and required resources affects attitudes. Journal of Consumer Research 22 (2), 121–138.

Michalski, R., and J. Grobelny (2016). The effects of background colour, shape and dimensionality on purchase intentions in a digital product presentation. In: Universal Access in Human-Computer Interaction. Users and Context Diversity. Ed. by M. Antona and C. Stephanidis. UAHCI 2016. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol 9739. Springer, pp. 468–479.

Moe, W. W., and P. S. Fader (2004). Dynamic conversion behaviour at e-commerce sites. Management Science 50 (3), 326–335.

Milkman, K. L., Rogers, T. And Bazerman, M. H. (2010). I will have the ice cream soon and the vegetables later: A study of online grocery purchases and order lead time. Marketing Letters, 21(1): 17–35.

Morganosky, M. A. And Brenda, J. C. (2000). Consumer response to online grocery shopping. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, 28(1): 17–26.

Mosteller, J., N. Donthu, and S. Eroglu, (2014). The fluent online shopping experience. Journal of Business Research, 67(11): p. 2486-2493.

Nguyen, H. N., Tham, J, Khatibi, A. and Azam, S. M. F. (2019). Enhancing the Capacity of Tax Authorities and its Impact on Transfer Pricing Activities of FDI Enterprises in Ha Noi, Ho Chi Minh, Dong Nai, and Binh Duong Province of Vietnam, Management Science Letters, 9 (8): 1299-1310

Oliva, A. (2005). Gist of the scene. In: The Neurobiology of Attention. Ed. by: L. Itti, G. Rees, and J. K. Tsotsos. New York, NY: Elsevier. pp. 251–257.

Oliva, A. and A. Torralba (2007). The role of context in object recognition. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 11 (12), 520–527. Orth, U. R. and R. C. Crouch (2014). Is a beauty in the aisles of the retailer? Package processing in visually complex contexts. Journal of Retailing 90 (4), 524–537.

Orth, U. R. and J. Wirtz (2014). Consumer processing of interior service environments. The interplay among visual complexity, processing fluency, and attractiveness. Journal of Service Research 17 (3), 296–309.

Pambreni, Y., Khatibi, A., Azam, S. M. F. and Tham, J. (2019). The Influence of Total Quality Management toward Organization Performance, Management Science Letters, 9 (9): 1397-1406.

Park, J., Lennon, S. J., and L. Stoel (2005). On-line product presentation: effects on mood, perceived risk, and purchase intention. Psychology & Marketing 22 (9), 695–719.

Peck, J. and S. B. Shu (2009). The effect of mere touch on perceived ownership. Journal of Consumer Research 36 (3), 434–447.

Peng, X., Wang, X., and H. H. Teo (2017). Touch makes you think concretely: The effects of computer interfaces on product evaluation. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS),

Pieters, R. and M. Wedel (2004). Attention capture and transfer in advertising: Brand, pictorial, and text-size effects, Journal of Marketing 68 (2), 36–50.

Pieters, R. and M. Wedel (2008). Informativeness of eye movements for visual marketing. in: Visual Marketing: From Attention to Action. Ed. by: M. Wedel and R. Pieters. New York, NY: Lawrence Erlbaum, pp. 43–71

Pieters, R., and M. Wedel (2012). Ad gist: Ad communication in a single eye fixation. Marketing Science 31 (1), 59–73.

Pieters, R., Wedel, M., and R. Batra (2010). The stopping power of advertising: measures and effects of visual complexity. Journal of Marketing 74 (5), 48–60.

Portsmouth, UK, 2018 14 Malcolm, G. L., Groen, I. I., and C. I. Baker (2016). Making sense of real-world scenes. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 20 (11), 843–856.

Pushpakumara, W. D. H., Atan, H., Khatib, A., Azam, S. M. F. and Tham, J. (2019). Developing a Framework for Scrutinizing Strategic Green Orientation and Organizational Performance with Relevance to the Sustainability of Tourism Industry, European Journal of Social Sciences Studies, 4 (3): 1-18

Rachmawati, D., Shukri, S., Azam, S. M. F. and Khatibi, A. (2019). Factors Influencing Customers’ Purchase Decision of Residential Property in Selangor, Malaysia, Management Science Letters, 9 (9): 1341-1348

Ramus, K. And Nielsen, N. A. (2005). Online grocery retailing: what do consumers think? Internet Research, 15(3): 335–352.

Robinson, H., Dall’olmo R., Rettie, R. and Rayner, K. (2009). Eye movements and attention in reading, scene perception, and visual search. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 62 (8), 1457-1506.

Reber, R. and N. Schwarz, N. (2001). The hot fringes of consciousness: Perceptual fluency and affect. Consciousness & Emotion 2 (2), 223–231.

Reber, R. and N. Zupanek (2002). Effects of processing fluency on estimates of probability and frequency. In: Frequency processing and cognition. Ed. by: P. Sedlmeier and T. Betsch. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, pp. 175–188. Schwarz, N. (2004). Metacognitive experiences in consumer judgment and decision making. Journal of Consumer Psychology 14 (4), 332–348.

Reber, R., Schwarz, N., and P. Winkielman (2004a). Processing fluency and aesthetic pleasure: Is a beauty in the perceiver’s processing experience? Personality and Social Psychology Review 8 (4), 364–382.

Reber, R., Winkielman, P., and N. Schwarz (1998). Effects of perceptual fluency on affective judgments. Psychological Science 9 (1), 45–48.

Reber, R., Wurtz, P., and T. D. Zimmermann (2004b). Exploring “fringe” consciousness: the subjective experience of perceptual fluency and its objective bases. Consciousness and Cognition 13 (1), 47–60.

Rolls-Willson, G., (2007). The role of situational variables in online grocery shopping in the UK. The Marketing Review, 7(1): 89–106.

San Martín, H. and Á. Herrero (2012). Influence of the user’s psychological factors on the online purchase intention in rural tourism: Integrating innovativeness to the UTAUT framework. Tourism Management, 33(2): p. 341-350.

Schifferstein, H. N., Howell, B. F., and S. C. Pont (2017). Colored backgrounds affect the attractiveness of fresh produce, but not it’s perceived color. Food Quality and Preference (56), 173–180.

Schwarz, N. (2015). Metacognition. In: APA handbook of personality and social psychology. Volume 1: Attitudes and social cognition. Ed. by: M. Mikulincer and P. R. Shaver. Washington, DC: APA, pp. 203–229.

Schwarz, N. and G. L. Clore (1983). Mood, misattribution, and judgments of well-being: Informative and directive functions of affective states. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 45 (3), 513–523.

Seiders, K., Voss, G. B., Godfrey, A. L. And Grewal D. 2007. Servcon: Development and Validation of a Multidimensional Service Convenience Scale, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 35(1): 144–56.

Sevilla, J. and C. Townsend (2016). The space-to-product ratio effect: How interstitial space influences product an aesthetic appeal, store perceptions, and product preference. Journal of Marketing Research 53 (5), 665–681.

Shapiro, S. (1999). When an ad’s influence is beyond our conscious control: Perceptual and conceptual fluency effects caused by incidental ad exposure. Journal of Consumer Research 26 (1), 16– 36.

Shapiro, S. A. and J. H. Nielsen (2013). What the blind eye sees: Incidental change detection as a source of perceptual fluency. Journal of Consumer Research 39 (6), 1202–1218.

Song, H., and N. Schwarz (2009). If it’s difficult to pronounce, it must be risky: Fluency, familiarity, and risk perception. Psychological Science 20 (2), 135-138.

Song, S. S. and M. Kim (2012). Does more mean better? An examination of visual product presentation in e-retailing. Journal of Electronic Commerce Research 13 (4), 345–355.

Sreya, R. And Raveendran, P.T. (2017). Effect of shopping orientations on attitude towards online shopping - a multiple regression approach. Management Insight, 12(2): 1–7.

Statista (2017). Share of consumers likely to buy groceries online in the United States from 2015 to 2017. Statista: The Statistic Portal. [Online]. Available at: [Accessed: 2018, January 8].

Steinmann, S., Kilian, T., and D. Brylla (2014). Experiencing products virtually: The role of vividness and interactivity in influencing mental imagery and user reactions. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS),

Stewart, D. W. 1981. The Application and Misapplication of Factor Analysis in Marketing Research. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(1): 51–62.

Stuart, E. W., Shimp, T. A., and R. W. Engle (1987). Classical conditioning of consumer attitudes: Four experiments in an advertising context. Journal of Consumer Research 14 (3), 334–349. Sunaga, T., Park, J., and C. Spence (2016). Effects of Lightness-Location Congruency on Consumers’ Purchase Decision-Making. Psychology & Marketing 33 (11), 934–950.

Szymanski, D. M., and R. T. Hise (2000). e-Satisfaction: An initial examination. Journal of Retailing 76 (3), 309–322.

Tao, D., Tham, J. and Azam S. M. F. (2019). Voluntary Community Service Effectiveness among College Students in Tongren University, China. European Journal of Social Science Studies, 4(4): 156-173.

Tarofder, A. K. and Azam, S. M. F. and Jalal, A. N. (2017), Operational or Strategic Benefits: Empirical Investigation of Internet Adoption in Supply Chain Management, Management Research Review, 40 (1): 28-52.

Tarofder, A. K., Haque, A., Hashim, N., Azam, S. M. F. and Sherief, S. R. (2019). Impact of Ecological Factors on Nationwide Supply Chain Performance, Ekoloji, 28(107): 695-704.

Tham, J., Yazid, M. S. A, Khatibi, A. A. and Azam, S. M. F. (2017), Internet and Data Security – Understanding Customer Perception on Trusting Virtual Banking Security in Malaysia. European Journal of Social Sciences Studies, 2 (7): 186-207.

Udriyah, U., Tham, J. and Azam, S. M. F. (2019). The Effects of Market Orientation and Innovation on Competitive Advantage and Business Performance of Textile SMEs, Management Science Letters, 9 (9): 1419-1428.

Wedel, M., Pieters, R., and J. Liechty (2008). Attention switching during scene perception: How goals influence the time course of eye movements across advertisements. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied 14 (2), 129–138.

Wu, K., Vassileva, J., Zhao, Y., Noorian, Z., Waldner, W., and I. Adaji (2016). Complexity or simplicity? Designing product pictures for advertising in online marketplaces. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services 28, 17–27. Brylla and Walsh / Isolated Product Depictions Twenty-Sixth European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS2018), Portsmouth,UK, 2018 16.

Yoo, J. and M. Kim (2014). The effects of online product presentation on consumer responses: A mental imagery perspective. Journal of Business Research 67 (11), 2464–2472. Commerce, 2(2): p. 69-87.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2019 Zhang Zhong Yang, Jacquline Tham, S. M. Ferdous Azam

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

The research works published in this journal are free to be accessed. They can be shared (copied and redistributed in any medium or format) and\or adapted (remixed, transformed, and built upon the material for any purpose, commercially and\or not commercially) under the following terms: attribution (appropriate credit must be given indicating original authors, research work name and publication name mentioning if changes were made) and without adding additional restrictions (without restricting others from doing anything the actual license permits). Authors retain the full copyright of their published research works and cannot revoke these freedoms as long as the license terms are followed.

Copyright © 2015-2018. European Journal of Management and Marketing Studies (ISSN 2501 - 9988) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing GroupAll rights reserved.

This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library. All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms. All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and standards formulated by Budapest Open Access Initiative (2002), the Bethesda Statement on Open Access Publishing (2003) and  Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities (2003) and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Copyrights of the published research works are retained by authors.