Farzana Akther, Imtiaz Masroor, S. M. Misbauddin


Metacognitive ability refers to one’s knowledge and the mechanism how the people control the process of generating and applying such knowledge in order to maximize learning.  This paper focuses on exploration of the influence of metacognitive abilities of the university students in their perceptions of the barriers to the formation of their intentions to become entrepreneur. Based on the extant literature, two hypotheses were developed and tested using Partial Least Squares based on Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM). To test the hypotheses, primary data were collected from the 3rd year students of the business administration departments of three universities from Khulna, the third largest city in the south-western part of Bangladesh. This study found that cognitive knowledge and cognitive regulation positive affects perception of barrier to be an entrepreneur. This might prove helpful to the nascent entrepreneurs by broadening their outlook.


Article visualizations:

Hit counter



cognitive knowledge, cognitive regulation, metacognitive ability, perception of barriers to entrepreneurship

Full Text:



Acs, Z. (2006). Start-ups and entry barriers: small and medium sized firms population dynamics. The Oxford Handbook of Entrepreneurship, 194-224.

Alam, Md. N., Masroor, I., Sultana, A., & Rahman, Md. M. (2016). Impact of Entrepreneurial Competencies on Adopted Innovative Marketing Strategies by Entrepreneurs: A Study on Small and Medium Boutique and Fashion House in Khulna City. Khulna University Business Review, 11(1&2), 83-99.

Alam, Md. N., Masroor, I., Rokon, T. Md., & Rakib, S. G. (2020). Blue technology for sustainability of small and medium fish firms: A study on small and medium fish firms of Bangladesh. Environment, Development and Sustainability, DOI: 10.1007/s10668-020-00599-z.

Barzel, Y. (1997). Economic analysis of property rights. Cambridge University Press, New York.

Baumol, W. J. (1996). Entrepreneurship: Productive, unproductive, and destructive. Journal of Business Venturing, 11(1), 3-22.

Berardi-Coletta, B., Buyer, L. S., Dominowski, R. L., & Rellinger, E. R. (1995). Metacognition and problem solving: A process-oriented approach. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 21(1), 205.

Chauke, A., Pretorius, G., & Morgan, B. (2011). The lived experiences of mothers whose children were sexually abused by their intimate male partners. Indo-Pacific Journal of Phenomenology, 11(1).

Chin, W. W. (1998). The partial least squares approach to structural equation modeling. Modern Methods for Business Research, 295(2), 295-336.

Djankov, S. (2008). The regulation of entry (Vol. 1904). World Bank Publications.

Fayolle, A., & Gailly, B. (2015). The impact of entrepreneurship education on entrepreneurial attitudes and intention: Hysteresis and persistence. Journal of Small Business Management, 53(1), 75-93.

Flavell, J. H. (1976). Metacognitive aspects of problem solving. The Nature of Intelligence, 231-235.

Flavell, J. H. (1979). Metacognition and cognitive monitoring: A new area of cognitive–developmental inquiry. American Psychologist, 34(10), 906.

Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error: Algebra and statistics, 382-388.

Fretschner, M., & Weber, S. (2013). Measuring and understanding the effects of entrepreneurial awareness education. Journal of Small Business management, 51(3), 410-428.

Haynie, J. M., Shepherd, D., Mosakowski, E., & Earley, P. C. (2010). A situated metacognitive model of the entrepreneurial mindset. Journal of Business Venturing, 25(2), 217-229.

Hirschman, A. O. (1958). The strategy of economic development (No. 04; HD82, H5.).

Hodler, R. (2009). Industrial policy in an imperfect world. Journal of Development Economics, 90(1), 85-93.

Hulland, J. (1999). Use of partial least squares (PLS) in strategic management research: A review of four recent studies. Strategic Management Journal, 20(2), 195-204.

Johnson, S., Kaufmann, D., & Shleifer, A. (1997). Politics and entrepreneurship in transition economies. Available at SSRN 1117620.

Ku, K. Y., & Ho, I. T. (2010). Metacognitive strategies that enhance critical thinking. Metacognition and Learning, 5(3), 251-267.

La Marca, A. (2014, July). The development of a questionnaire on metacognition for students in secondary school. In Proceedings of EDULEARN14 Conference 7th (pp. 676-691).

La Porta, R., Lopez-de-Silanes, F., Shleifer, A., & Vishny, R. (1999). The quality of government. The Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization, 15(1), 222-279.

Lin, X., & Lehman, J. D. (1999). Supporting learning of variable control in a computer‐based biology environment: Effects of prompting college students to reflect on their own thinking. Journal of Research in Science Teaching: The Official Journal of the National Association for Research in Science Teaching, 36(7), 837-858.

Liñán, F., & Chen, Y. W. (2009). Development and cross–cultural application of a specific instrument to measure entrepreneurial intentions. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 33(3), 593-617.

Magno, C. (2010). The role of metacognitive skills in developing critical thinking. Metacognition and Learning, 5(2), 137-156.

Masroor, I., & Alam, Md. N. (2019). Does risk tolerance behaviour of entrepreneur affect the growth of entrepreneurial firms through the mediation of effectuation decision-making approach?. International Journal of Export Marketing, 3(2), 79-104.

Masroor, I., Alam, Md. N., Adnan, K. A., & Jahan, I. (2020). Inclination for internationalisation, a key driver to explain the speed of international market entry through the moderation of effectuation decision logic: a study on small and medium software firms of Bangladesh. Journal for International Business and Entrepreneurship Development, DOI: 10.1504/JIBED.2020.10026115.

Meichenbaum, D. (1985). Metacognitive methods of instruction: Current status and future prospects. Special Services in the Schools, 3(1-2), 23-32.

Meijer, J., Sleegers, P., Elshout-Mohr, M., Daalen-Kapteijns, M. V., Meeus, W., & Tempelaar, D. (2013). The development of a questionnaire on metacognition for students in higher education. Educational Research, 55(1), 31-52.

Mitchell, J. R., Smith, J. B., Gustafsson, V., Davidsson, P., & Mitchell, R. K. (2005). Thinking about thinking about thinking: Exploring how entrepreneurial metacognition affects entrepreneurial expertise. In presented June (Vol. 10, p. 2005).

Monitor, G. E. (2017). Women's Entrepreneurship 2016/2017 Report.

North, D. (1990). Institutions, Institutional Change and Economic Performance. Cambridge University Press, New York.

North, D. and Thomas, R. P. (1973). The rise of the western world: A new economic history. Cambridge University Press, New York.

Nunally, J. C., & Bernstein, I. H. (1978). Psychometric Theory. Free Press Publishing, New York.

Parker, S. C. (2006). Law and the Economics of Entrepreneurship. Comp. Lab. L. & Pol'y J., 28, 695.

Rodrik, D. (2000). Institutions for high-quality growth: what they are and how to acquire them. Studies in Comparative International Development, 35(3), 3-31.

Somerville, M. P. (2015). Metacognition. Retrieved from, available at:

Tanzi, V. (1998). Corruption around the world: Causes, consequences, scope, and cures. Staff Papers, 45(4), 559-594.

Veenman, M. V., Prins, F. J., & Verheij, J. (2003). Learning styles: Self‐reports versus thinking‐aloud measures. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 73(3), 357-372.

Williamson, O. E. (2007). The economic institutions of capitalism. Firms, markets, relational contracting. In Das Summa Summarum des Management (pp. 61-75). Gabler.

Zepeda, C. D., Richey, J. E., Ronevich, P., & Nokes-Malach, T. J. (2015). Direct instruction of metacognition benefits adolescent science learning, transfer, and motivation: An in vivo study. Journal of Educational Psychology, 107(4), 954.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2020 Farzana Akther, Imtiaz Masroor, S. M. Misbauddin

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

The research works published in this journal are free to be accessed. They can be shared (copied and redistributed in any medium or format) and\or adapted (remixed, transformed, and built upon the material for any purpose, commercially and\or not commercially) under the following terms: attribution (appropriate credit must be given indicating original authors, research work name and publication name mentioning if changes were made) and without adding additional restrictions (without restricting others from doing anything the actual license permits). Authors retain the full copyright of their published research works and cannot revoke these freedoms as long as the license terms are followed.

Copyright © 2017-2023. European Journal of Management and Marketing Studies (ISSN 2501 - 9988) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing GroupAll rights reserved.

This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library. All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms. All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and standards formulated by Budapest Open Access Initiative (2002), the Bethesda Statement on Open Access Publishing (2003) and  Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities (2003) and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Copyrights of the published research works are retained by authors.