SUCCESSIVE ELECTION OF REGIONAL HEADS: A COMPARISON STUDY OF THE STATE CONSTITUTIONS OF MAJAPAHIT, INDONESIA, AND THE UNITED STATES

Wahyu Hindiawati, Wiwik Utami, Dian Utami Ikhwaningrum, Ika Kusumaning Wardhani, Devita Rosa Salsabila

Abstract


A constitution is a written regulation and a state convention (state administration) that determines the composition and position of state bodies, regulates relations between the bodies, and regulates the relationships between these bodies and the citizens. The enactment of a constitution as a binding fundamental law is based on the highest power or the principle of sovereignty adopted by a certain country. If the country adheres to the notion of popular sovereignty, then the source of the legitimacy of the constitution is the people. If monarchical sovereignty is applied, then the monarch will determine whether or not a constitution may be enforced. A constitution also contains regulations for the election of regional heads. Regional head elections are one of the characteristics of a state that applies democratic principles. This study aims to analyze the election of regional heads by comparing the constitutions of Majapahit, Indonesia, and the United States of America. The method used in this research is normative juridical, namely by reviewing the norms of Constitution, laws and other sources of legal material, including journals. The results of this research are that regional heads in Majapahit were directly elected by the Prabu (King). It was a District/majority representative system since the regional heads were directly elected by the king, an Organic and Non-Democratic electoral system. Whereas in Indonesia, regional heads (Governors, Regents and Mayors) are democratically elected, elected directly by the people or by the Provincial, Regential and Municipal House of Representatives (district representation system based on the majority and balance). However, in the reform era, the legislators interpreted the democratic system as direct election by the people. The electoral system is mechanical, organic and democratic. In the United States, the Head of State is directly elected by the people but at the discretion of the legislature, hence the representative system is a balanced representation system. The electoral system is organic and semi-democratic.

Article visualizations:

Hit counter


Keywords


successive regional head election, Constitution of Majapahit, Constitution of Indonesia, Constitution of the US

Full Text:

PDF

References


a. Journal articles

James Madison (1788). The Conformity of the Plan to Republican Principles. The thirty-ninth of The Federalist Papers. Published on January 16.

Suko Wiyono (2021). The Importance of Community Understanding of Political Ethics and Culture in Developing a Democratic Political Culture in Indonesia Regions. Jurnal International Journal of Law and Politics Studies (IJLPS), Vol 3, No 1.

Veri Junaidi (2009). Menata Sistem Penegakan Hukum Pemilu Demokratis Tinjauan Kewenangan MK atas Penyelesaian Perselisihan Hasil Pemilu (PHPU) (Managing the Enforcement System of the Democratic Election Law Review of the Constitutional Court's Authority for the Settlement of Disputes over Election Results [PHPU]). Jurnal Konstitusi Volume 6, Nomor 3, September 2009.

b. Books

Bambang Purwoko (2009). Demokrasi Mencari Bentuk Analisis Politik Indonesia Kontempore r (Democracy Seeking a Form of Contemporary Indonesian Political Analysis), Departemen Politik dan Pemerintahan UGM, Yogyakarta.

Jimly Assiddiqie (2017). Konstitusi dan Konstitusionalisme Indonesia (Indonesian Constitution and Constitutionalism). Sinar Grafika. Jakarta Timur.

Jimly Asshiddiqie (2003). Struktur Ketatanegaraan Indonesia Setelah Perubahan Keempat UUD Tahun 1945 (Indonesian Constitutional Structure After the Fourth Amendment to the 1945 Constitution), A Paper presented at “Seminar Pembangunan Hukum Nasional VIII Tema Penegakan Hukum Dalam Era Pembangunan Berkelanjutan” held by Badan Pembinaan Hukum Nasional Departemen Kehakiman Dan Hak Asasi Manusia RI Denpasar, 14-18 Juli 2003.

Munir Fuady (2010). Konsep Negara Demokrasi (The Concept of Democratic State). PT Refika Aditama. Bandung.

Muhammad Yamin. Tata Negara Madjapahit (The State Administration of Majapahit). Jajasan Prapantja. Djakarta. 1525.

Suko Wiyono (2010). Pemilihan Umum Kepala Daerah Kabupaten Blitar Dalam Perspektif Demokrasi Pancasila (General Election of Regional Head of Blitar Regency in the Perspective of Pancasila Democracy). A Paper presented at “Sarasehan Pemilu Kepala Daerah dalam Perspektif Pengembangan Demokrasi dan Penguatan Wawasan Kebangsaan”, held by Badan Kesatuan Bangsa dan Politik Pemerintah Provinsi Jawa Timur, tanggal 8 Juli 2010, di Hotel Puri Perdana Blitar.

Suko Wiyono (2018). Reaktualisasi Pancasila dalam Kehidupan Berbangsa dan Bernegara (Reactualization of Pancasila in the Life of the Nation and State), Universitas Wisnuwardhana Malang Press, Malang.

Undang-Undang Dasar Negara Republik Indonesia Tahun (1945) (The 1945 Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia). Sekretariat Jenderal MPR RI. Jakarta. 2015.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.46827/ejpss.v4i2.1115

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2021 Wahyu Hindiawati, Wiwik Utami, Dian Utami Ikhwaningrum, Ika Kusumaning Wardhani, Devita Rosa Salsabila

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

The research works published in this journal are free to be accessed. They can be shared (copied and redistributed in any medium or format) and\or adapted (remixed, transformed, and built upon the material for any purpose, commercially and\or not commercially) under the following terms: attribution (appropriate credit must be given indicating original authors, research work name and publication name mentioning if changes were made) and without adding additional restrictions (without restricting others from doing anything the actual license permits). Authors retain the full copyright of their published research works and cannot revoke these freedoms as long as the license terms are followed.

Copyright © 2016 - 2018. European Journal Of Political Science Studies (ISSN 2601-2766) is a registered trademark. All rights reserved.

This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library. All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms. All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and standards formulated by Budapest Open Access Initiative (2002), the Bethesda Statement on Open Access Publishing (2003) and  Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities (2003) and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Copyrights of the published research works are retained by authors.


 

Hit counter