MODERN PUBLIC FINANCES AS A PROPOSAL FOR AN EMERGING COUNTRY: THE SOCIAL APPROACH IN THE FIGHT AGAINST POVERTY IN MEXICO

Carlos Medel-Ramírez, Hilario Medel-López

Abstract


In Mexico, the management of public resources has been questioned by the State, and mainly the results that the public administration at its three levels (federal, state and municipal), by the lack of transparency in the application and verification of public resources. The experience that gives us the operation of different emerging programs that focused on reducing social and economic inequality in the country, we can locate them as the first attempts in the search for a solution that is complex. Moving from the role of the benefactor and welfare state to the promoter of the regions and in the recognition of the focalization of priority attention areas, the path that has been taken is not only the beginning. Recognizing the public nature of public finances as a promoter of social development, we must understand it as the one assumed by the State through social, political and economic co-responsibility to solve poverty and marginalization of its own public policy orientation and vision of solution has been made since the eighties. From the above, we can point out some preliminary conclusions including the study of the indigenous language-speaking population with a high level of social exclusion in the methodology for the definition of multidimensional poverty in Mexico, will allow the allocation of public resources in the fight against poverty to be effective since it will make it possible to identify to the target population that is subject to social exclusion and marginalization. This invites us to a final reflection: What to do to address the just social demands of the indigenous population that is immersed in poverty, marginalization and exclusion? What to do so that they do not leave their communities, and if they have already done so, how to attend to the needs of family groups that are due to the expense of a remittance that may never arrive?

 

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multidimensional poverty, social exclusion, indigenous population, public finance and combat poverty.

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References


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i See Flores-Zavala, Ernesto (1989). Elements of Mexican Public Finance. Editorial Porrúa. Mexico.

ii Duverger, Maurice (1988). Finances Publiques. Presses Universitaires de France. Paris, France p. 11.

iii Gaudemet, Paul Marie (1977). Finances Publiques. Politique Financiére. Budget Et Trésor. Troisiéme Édition, Editions Montchrestien. Paris. (Ve). Pp. 8-19.

iv Political Constitution of the United Mexican States (2002). Eighth Edition, Fiscal Editions ISEF, Mexico. p. 62

v See Organic Law of the Federal Public Administration. pp. 1-2.

vi See Flores Zavala, Ernesto (1989). Elements of Mexican Public Finance. Editorial Porrúa. Mexico. Op. Cit.

vii See. Political Constitution of the United Mexican States Op. Cit. p.37

viii Gaudemet, Paul Marie. Op. Cit. p. 19

ix Duverger, Maurice. Op. Cit. p. 9.

x Federal Income Law for the fiscal year of 2011. New Law published in the Official Gazette of the Federation on November 15, 2010 In: http://www.diputados.gob.mx/LeyesBiblio/pdf/LIF_2011.pdf, Budget of Expenditures of the Federation. In: http://www.diputados.gob.mx/LeyesBiblio/pdf/PEF_2010.pdf

xi See Medel Ramírez Carlos. The bonfire of the vanities or the engine of public finances: The dynamics of economic, political and administrative influence (Exposé 3). Universidad Veracruzana. Doctorate in Public Finance. October 25, 2011. Unpublished

xii See Articles 2 subsection "A", 3, 4, 25, 26 of the Political Constitution of the United Mexican States. Constitution published in the Official Gazette of the Federation on February 5, 1917. Current text. Last Reform DOF 08-10-2013 Retrieved from: http://www.diputados.gob.mx/LeyesBiblio/pdf/1.pdf, accessed on April 2, 2013.

xiii With the creation by law of the National Council for the Evaluation of Social Development Policy (CENEVAL), the Mexican state gives a technical recognition and establishes the need to define a methodology to quantify the phenomenon of poverty, as well as to define the lines of action for the fight against poverty, the targeting of the target population, and the establishment for control in the allocation of federal public resources for different social programs, and in particular, of those referred to the determination of areas of priority attention, and the evaluation of the programs implemented to combat multidimensional poverty.

xiv Law of Social Development. Chapter VI On the Definition and Measurement of Poverty, in article 36. It is stated that: "The guidelines and criteria established by the National Council for the Evaluation of Social Development Policy for the definition, identification and measurement of poverty are of mandatory application for public entities and agencies that participate in the execution of social development programs, and must use the information generated by the National Institute of Statistics, Geography and Informatics, independently of other data deemed appropriate, at least on the following indicators: I. Per capita current income; II. Average educational lag in the home; III. Access to health services; IV. Access to social security; V. Housing quality and spaces; SAW. Access to basic services in housing; VII. Access to food, and VIII. Degree of social cohesion. See: Social Development Law. Retrieved from: http://www.diputados.gob.mx/LeyesBiblio/pdf/ 264.pdf Retrieved on April 12, 2011.

xv To fulfill the function conferred by law, the Secretariat of Social Development "SEDESOL" must present every six years, at the beginning of the presidential period, the Social Development Program, which establishes the objectives and strategies to be implemented in the state Mexican social policy, which should be in accordance with the National Development Program.

xvi Social Development Law, in Title Five. From the evaluation of the social development policy, Chapter I. Of the Evaluation, in the article 72 it establishes: “The evaluation of the Social Development Policy will be in charge of the National Council of Evaluation of the Policy of Social Development that will be able to realize it by itself or through one or several independent bodies of the executor of the program, and aims to periodically review the fulfillment of the social objective of the programs, goals and actions of the Social Development Policy, to correct them, modify them, add them, reorient them or Suspend them totally or partially." See: Social Development Law. Op. Cit.

xvii SEDESOL. (2007). Agreement by which the operating rules of the human development program are issued. 2008 (Mexico, Ministry of Social Development, SEDESOL). Mexico, D.F

.:Official Gazette of the Federation. Retrieved from: https://www.prospera.gob.mx/Portal/work/sites/Web/resources/ArchivoContent/710/Reglas_Oportunidades_(DOF)_2008.pdf, Consulted on January 11, 2015.

xviii Since 1989 with the National Solidarity Program and later, with the Education, Health and Food Program; and until 2012 the Oportunidades Program, the actions of the Federal Government have been directed to this end, currently in the National Development Plan 2013 - 2018, the Axis number II called "Inclusive Mexico" is focused on the action of the State for guarantee the exercise of social rights and close gaps in social inequality.

xix The Law of Social Development, in its article 37, which states: "The studies of the National Council for the Evaluation of Social Development Policy must be done at least every two years for each federal entity and with disaggregated information at the municipal level every five years, for which the corresponding budgetary forecasts must be made in the Budget of Expenditures of the Federation, so that the National Institute of Statistics, Geography and Informatics carries out the corresponding censuses, counts and surveys." See in The Law of Social Development, Op. Cit.

xx See Medel-Ramírez C. (2016). "Evaluation of the degree of social exclusion and of multidimensional poverty in the indigenous localities in the State of Veracruz: The case of the program of development of priority zones." (Doctoral thesis). Economy faculty. Doctorate in Public Finance. Veracruz University.


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