Camille H. Habib, Ghada Awada


The study was set to investigate the nature and effects of religious violence along with the governments' role in combating such violence. The study also intended to reveal the causes of the increasingly growing impact of religious violence. The study has been based on the rationale that radicalism and fundamentalism empower religious violence. The study employed the meta-analysis research method whereby the researchers carried out the synthesis of results from existent studies to reach conclusions and inferences that could address the study questions. The findings of the study indicated that the religious violence often prospers due to the anger that the public holds for the marginalization that should be eradicated. Religion ignites the anger and turns it into  violence. The findings of the study showed that the economics of religion could be an approach based on the assumptions of stability, behavior, and preferences. The economic religious approach might be used rigorously to disseminate the fundamentals of religious violence. The portrayal of sects as militias and angry fanatics that are waging war against the enlightened and modern society made matters worse. Sects as a backbone of religious violence could flourish in communities that are different in culture and religion. It is recommended that governments adopt educational system and the strategy of organizing summits, dialogs, and commissions to give communities hope for a brighter future that could guarantee them and their posterity a happy, satisfying life in a setting where diversity and tolerance of all religions and cultures prevail.


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Al Qaeda, extremism, fanaticism, fundamentalism, religiosity, religion, violence

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Dr. Ghada Awada, a Fulbright Scholar and a senior consultant, is a coordinator of American University of Beirut CEC certificate and Arbitration programs. A recipient of the Abdul Hamid Hallab REP Excellence Award. She also worked as consultant for ESCWA from 2013-present, World Bank from 2016-present, UNESCO from 2016-present, and DRASATI from 2011-2015. Dr. Awada was awarded appreciation certificates by the Lebanese Army Research Strategic Studies Center (2017, 2018), Lebanese university (2004), American university of Beirut (2017), Lebanese University (2004) and Ministry of Education and Higher Education (2004). Dr. Ghada Awada has designed the AUB Arbitration Certificate Program and has acted as a Reviewer for Violence against Women, TESOL, Computer Assisted Language Learning, Cogent Education, and Interactive Environments/Taylor and Francis Journals. Dr. Awada has further designed professional and Certification programs. Authored and co-authored English and legal English textbooks. She gave arbitration workshops at several institutions and organizations, designed, and Assisted in designing training materials related to Laws in the Middle East, conflict resolution, United Nations Organizations, Laws and the Society, Legal Studies, and International Organizations. Dr. Awada gave and assisted in giving workshops for lawyers, trainers, and counsellors. Designed Business Law curricula (Antonine University), taught Law, Legal Studies, and Political Science courses. She designed and coordinated Legal English, ESP, Law, Legal Studies and Arbitration courses at the American University of Beirut, Lebanese University and Antonine University, and Lebanese Army Research Strategic Studies Center. Dr. Awada gave consultancies to different institutions through the American University of Beirut and Lebanese American University. Dr. Ghada Awada has also an extensive experience (19 years) in teaching and coordination. She has authored 55 textbooks and articles. Dr. Awada devised a curriculum framework for the integration of peace education into instruction (Awada & Daib, 2017) and (Diab & Awada 2018). Likewise, she has been studying the challenges that hinder the use of CL and democratic, intercultural-based learning in different disciplines despite its proven methods and theoretical relevance (e,g., Awada, Diab & Faour, 2017; Awada, Diab & Faour, 2018).



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