THE PRINCIPLES OF ISIS’S IDEOLOGY: AN ACADEMIC DEBATE

Md Jaynal Abedin

Abstract


Since the terrorist attack on 9/11 in the United States, the world sees a superfluity of contributions to the academic debate on the shifting character of terrorism. Huntington argued the new actors in international conflicts are no longer nation-states but civilization. He defines this concept as the highest cultural grouping of people (…) defined both by common objective elements (language, history, religion, customs, institutions) and by the subjective self-identification of people. ISIS is the latest version of terrorism has all of the characteristics of a state without international recognition and legitimacy. From 15 May 2010 to October 26, 2019, ISIS had been led by Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, who spent five years in American captivity in the Bucca prison in Iraq. On 5 July 2014, he declared himself as the first caliph of a newly created Islamic Caliphate, known as the Islamic State. Within a short period, ISIS captured a large part of Iraq and Syria and then Baghdadi proclaimed himself with the acronym “Caliph Ibrahim.” Current research intends to evaluate the ideology of ISIS and tries to find out the factors that influenced Muslim youths around the world to join the group. The study has applied a qualitative research methodology by collecting data from content review; this includes books, scholarly articles, newspapers, and periodicals. For the reason that statistics would probably not be the answer to understanding beliefs and ideologies, qualitative data would better serve the purpose of this paper. The information will be largely dependent on an examination of scholarly sources that have provided analysis on jihadism in Islam as well as the political situation in Iraq and Syria that had led to the rapid rise of ISIS. The paper concludes by arguing that the extremist ideology of ISIS is a synthesis of counter-terror policy implications and the group’s ideology was rejected by Muslim scholars around the world.

 

Article visualizations:

Hit counter

DOI

Keywords


ISIS, Ideology, Salafism, Wahhabism, Terrorism

Full Text:

PDF

References


Ahmed Dr. N. History of Islam-Sheikh Ibn Abdul Wahab of Najd. https://historyofislam.com/shaykh-ibn-abdul-wahhab-of-najd/. Accessed May 23, 2019.

Al-Ibrahim F. (2015). Why ISIS is a threat to Saudi Arabia: Wahhabism’s deferred promise. http://english.al-akhbar.com/node/21234. Accessed May 21, 2019.

Al-Arabiya (2014). Egypt’s Grand Mufti: ISIS not part of Islam. http://english.alarabiya.net/en/News/middle-east/2014/09/08/Egypt-s-Grand-Mufti-ISIS-not-part-of-Islam.html. Accessed May 21, 2019.

Al Jazeera (2014). Sunni rebels declare new ‘Islamic caliphate.’ http://www.aljazeera.com/news/middleeast/2014/06/isil-declares-new-islamic-caliphate-201462917326669749.html. Accessed May 29, 2019.

Al-Zarqawi A. (2006). Series of the Life from the Words of the ‘Ulamā’ on the Project of the Islamic State. lectures 5, 6 and 7.

Alexandre V. (2015). ISIS, the clash of and within civilization? http://bloggsi.net/isis-the-clash-of-and-within-civilization-2/. Accessed May 18, 2019.

Amirie A. A. (2015). Understanding ISIS ideology. https://www.cluecho.com/2015/10/understanding-isis-ideology/. Accessed May 21, 2019.

Anjarini S. (2013). The Evolution of ISIS. http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/tr/security/2013/11/syria-islamic-state-iraq-sham-growth.html#. Accessed May 21, 2019.

BBC News (2015). What is Islamic State? http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-29052144. Accessed May 20, 2019.

Blanchard C. M. (2008). The Islamic Traditions of Wahhabism and Salafiyya. https://fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/RS21695.pdf. Accessed May 23, 2019.

Bunzel C. (2015). From Paper State to Caliphate: The Ideology of the Islamic State. http://www.brookings.edu/~/media/research/files/papers/2015/03/ideology-of-islamic-state-bunzel/the-ideology-of-the-islamic-state.pdf. Accessed May 21, 2019

Cockburn P. (2015). The Rise of Islamic State: ISIS and the New Sunni Revolt, Bybradley Williams, Issue 207.

Commins D. (2006). The Wahhabi Mission and Saudi Arabia, I. B. Tauris.

Cronin A. K. (2015). ISIS is Not a Terrorist Group: Why Counterterrorism Won’t Stop the Latest Jihadist Threat. https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/middle-east/isis-not-terrorist-group?cid=nlc-foreign_affairs_this_week-021915-isis_is_not_a_terrorist_group_5-021915&sp_mid=48064185&sp_rid=YWxpYWEuZWxkaWRpQGdtYWlsLmNvbQS2. Accessed May 21, 2019.

Crooke A., Hassan H. (2015). Isis has reached new depths of depravity. But there is a brutal logic behind it. http://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/feb/08/isis-islamic-state-ideology-sharia-syria-iraq-jordan-pilot. Accessed May 21, 2019.

Crooke A. (2014). You Can't Understand ISIS If You Don’t Know the History of Wahhabism in Saudi Arabia. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/alastair-crooke/isis-wahhabism-saudi-arabia_b_5717157.html. Accessed May 20, 2019

Crooke A. (2014). The ISIS’ ‘Management of Savagery’ in Iraq. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/alastair-crooke/iraq-isis-alqaeda_b_5542575.html. Accessed May 21, 2019.

Dabiq (2014). http://media.clarionproject.org/files/islamic-state/islamic-state-isis-magazine-Issue-4-the-failed-crusade.pdf. Accessed May 20, 2019.

Dearden L. (2016). Jakarta attacks: Chart shows Isis hated in Indonesia and Muslim-majority countries around the world. http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/middle-east/jakarta-attacks-chart-shows-isis-hated-in-indonesia-and-muslim-majority-countries-around-the-world-a6813651.html. Accessed May 20, 2019.

Didi A. E. (2015). Understanding ISIS Ideology: The Evolution of Political Islam (Part 4). http://natoassociation.ca/understanding-isis-ideology-the-evolution-of-political-islam-part-4/. Accessed May 21, 2019.

Dillon M. R. (2009). Wahabism: Is it a Factor in the Spread of Global Terrorism? http://www.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a509109.pdf. Accessed May 23, 2019.

Drake C. J. M. (1998). The role of ideology in terrorists’ target selection. Terrorism and Political Violence 10(2), 1998: 54-55. doi. 10.1080/09546559808427457.

Esposito J. L. (2011). What Everyone Needs to Know About Islam, Oxford University Press.

Esposito J. L (2015). Islam and Political Violence, Religions 6: 1067–1081. Doi. 10.3390/rel6031067.

Fernholz T. (2014). Don’t believe the people telling you to freak out over this “ISIL” map. http://qz.com/228833/dont-believe-the-people-telling-you-to-freak-out-over-this-isil-map/#/. Accessed May 21, 2019.

Friedman T. L. (2015). Letter from Saudi Arabia. http://www.nytimes.com/2015/11/25/opinion/letter-from-saudi-arabia.html?ribbon-ad-idx=5&rref=opinion&module=Ribbon&version=context&region=Header&action=click&contentCollection=Opinion&pgtype=article. Accessed May 21, 2019

Glasse C. (2001). The New Encyclopedia of Islam, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.

Global Security. Salafi Islam http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/intro/islam-salafi.htm. Accessed May 23, 2019.

Global Security (2005). Wahhabi. https://web.archive.org/web/20050507090328/http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/gulf/wahhabi.htm. Accessed May 23, 2019.

Greg B., Sandra V. (2015). Croatian ISIS captive reportedly beheaded. http://edition.cnn.com/2015/08/12/middleeast/isis-croatian-hostage/. Accessed June 1, 2019.

Gulmohamad Z. K. (2014). The Rise and Fall of the Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham (Levant) ISIS. Global Security Studies 5, no. 2: 1-11.

Haider M. (2013). European Parliament identifies Wahabi and Salafi roots of global terrorism. http://www.dawn.com/news/1029713. Accessed May 29, 2019

Hamid N. (2015). Paris: The War ISIS Wants. http://www.nybooks.com/daily/2015/11/16/paris-attacks-isis-strategy-chaos/. Accessed May 21, 2019.

Hassan H. (2015). The secret world of Isis training camps-ruled by sacred texts and the sword. http://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/jan/25/inside-isis-training-camps. Accessed May 21, 2019.

Huntington S. P. (1993). The clashes of Civilizations?, Council on Foreign Relations72, no. 3: 22-49, DOI: 10.2307/20045621.

Huntington S. P. (1996) ed. The Clash of Civilizations?: The Debate, Foreign Affairs, New York, ISBN 0-87609-164-8.

Huntington S. P. (1996). The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order, New York, Simon & Schuster, ISBN 0-684-84441-9.

Hussain G. (2014). Iraq crisis: What does the Isis caliphate mean for global jihadism?. http://www.independent.co.uk/voices/comment/iraq-crisis-what-does-the-isis-caliphate-mean-for-global-jihadism-9573951.html. Accessed June 1, 2019.

Ibrahim Y. M. (2002). The Mideast Threat That’s Hard to Define. http://www.cfr.org/religion/mideast-threat-s-hard-define/p4702. Accessed May 23, 2019.

Jamal A. A. (2015). ISIS ‘Manifesto’ Spells Out Role for Women. http://www.theatlantic.com/education/archive/2015/03/isis-manifesto-spells-out-role-for-women/387049/. Accessed May 21, 2019.

Jones S. G. (2014). A Persistent Threat: The Evolution of al Qa’ida and Other Salafi Jihadists. https://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/research_reports/RR600/RR637/RAND_RR637.pdf. Accessed May 23, 2019.

Joshi P. (2015). Isis: Islamic State executed over 10,000 men, women and children in Syria and Iraq. http://www.ibtimes.co.uk/isis-terror-group-executed-over-10000-men-women-children-syria-iraq-1521094. Accessed May 20, 2019.

Kepel G. (2002). Jihad: The trail of political Islam. MA: Harvard University Press, Cambridge.

Kirkpatrick D. D. (2014). ISIS’ Harsh Brand of Islam Is Rooted in Austere Saudi Creed. http://www.nytimes.com/2014/09/25/world/middleeast/isis-abu-bakr-baghdadi-caliph-wahhabi.html?_r=0. Accessed May 21, 2019.

Lacey R. (2009). Inside the Kingdom: Kings, Clerics, Modernists, Terrorists, and the Struggle for Saudi Arabia, Penguin Books.

Lacroix S., (2008). Al-Albani’s Revolutionary Approach to Hadith. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/ae47/ef58fb7ff87430b96a96a1f57f161a5fb0cc.pdf?_ga=2.93328670.2016613143.1573316666-1995599780.1570299045. Accessed June 2019.

Laurie G., (2016). Muslim Leaders Wage Theological Battle, Stoking ISIS’ Anger. http://mobile.nytimes.com/2016/05/09/us/isis-threatens-muslim-preachers-who-are-waging-theological-battle-online.html?referer=. Accessed May 21, 2019.

Lee J. (2014). Islamic State: What you need to know. http://www.usatoday.com/story/news/nation-now/2014/08/28/islamic-state-what-you-need-to-know/14675923/. Accessed May 21, 2019.

Livesey B. (2005). The Salafist movement by Bruce Livesey. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/front/special/sala.html. Accessed May 23, 2019.

Letter to Baghdadi. http://www.lettertobaghdadi.com/14/english-v14.pdf. Accessed May 21, 2019.

McCants W. (2015). The ISIS Apocalypse: The History, Strategy, and Doomsday Vision of the Islamic State, Picador.

McCoy T. (2014). The calculated madness of the Islamic State’s horrifying brutality. https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/morning-mix/wp/2014/08/12/the-calculated-madness-of-the-islamic-states-horrifying-brutality/. Accessed May 21, 2019.

Mearsheimer J. J. (2014). America Unhinged. http://nationalinterest.org/files/digital-edition/1388435556/129%20Digital%20Edition.pdf. Accessed May 23, 2019

Memri (2014). http://www.memrijttm.org/islamic-state-isis-releases-pamphlet-on-female-slaves.html. Accessed May 20, 2019.

Moghadam A. (2008). The Salafi-jihad as a religious ideology. CTC Sentinel 1, no 3: 14-16.

Moghadam A. (2008). Motives for martyrdom: Al Qaeda, Salafi jihad, and the spread of suicide attacks. International Security 33, no 3: 46-78.

Marrakesh Declaration (2016). http://www.marrakeshdeclaration.org/marrakesh-declaration.html. Accessed May 21, 2019.

Naji A. B. (2006). The Management of Savagery: The Most Critical Stage Through Which the Umma Will Pass. https://azelin.files.wordpress.com/2010/08/abu-bakr-naji-the-management-of-savagery-the-most-critical-stage-through-which-the-umma-will-pass.pdf. Accessed May 21, 2019.

National Security. Islamic State, Australian Government. https://www.nationalsecurity.gov.au/Listedterroristorganisations/Pages/IslamicState.aspx. Accessed May 21, 2019.

Negus S. (2015). ISIS: Inside the Army of Terror and More. http://www.nytimes.com/2015/04/05/books/review/isis-inside-the-army-of-terror-and-more.html?_r=0. Accessed May 21, 2019.

OIC Istanbul Summit (2016). https://www.oic-oci.org/docdown/?docID=14&refID=5. Accessed September 18, 2019.

Operation Pakistan (2014). Letter of 152 leading Islamic Scholars to Abu Bakr al Baghdadi https://operationpakistan.wordpress.com/2014/10/10/letter-to-abu-bakr-al-baghdadi-by-152-leading-islamic-scholars/. Accessed January 2019

Thaler D. (2004). The Middle East: The Cradle of the Muslim World. RAND Corporation, pp. 69-146.

Paraszczuk J. (2014). Umar Shishani’s Second-in-Command in ISIS Slams Scholars Who “Sow Discord” & Don’t Fight. http://www.chechensinsyria.com/?p=19207. Accessed June 2019.

Rajia A. (2014). French Muslim leaders denounce ISIS brutality. http://english.alarabiya.net/en/News/world/2014/09/10/French-Muslim-leaders-denounce-ISIS-brutality-.html. Accessed May 21, 2019.

Reardon M. (2015). ISIL and the management of savagery. http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/opinion/2015/07/isil-management-savagery-150705060914471.html. Accessed May 21, 2019.

Roy O. (1994). The Failure of Political Islam. Harvard University Press, pp. 118-9.

Sageman M. (2013). The Stagnation of Research on Terrorism. http://chronicle.com/blogs/conversation/2013/04/30/the-stagnation-of-research-on-terrorism/. Accessed May 23, 2019.

Saul H. (2014). Isis now targeting women with guides on how to be the ‘ultimate wives of jihad’. http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/middle-east/isis-now-targeting-women-with-guides-on-how-to-be-the-ultimate-wives-of-jihad-9830562.html. Accessed June 1, 2019.

Sharkov D. (2014). Britain’s Largest Mosques Condemn “Un-Islamic” ISIS Radicals. http://www.newsweek.com/britains-largest-mosques-condemn-un-islamic-isis-radicals-268149. Accessed May 21, 2019.

Speckhard A. (2014). End Times Brewing: An Apocalyptic View on al-Baghdadi’s Declaration of a Caliphate in Iraq and the Flow of Foreign Fighters Coming from the West. https://web.archive.org/web/20140917040453/http://www.huffingtonpost.co.uk/anne-speckhard/isis-iraq_b_5541693.html. Accessed May 21, 2019.

Sypher F. (2017). Rape and Sexual Slavery Inside an ISIS Prison. http://www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2014/08/28/rape-and-sexual-slavery-inside-an-isis-prison.html. Accessed May 21, 2019.

The Economist, (2015). Salafism: Politics and the puritanical. http://www.economist.com/news/middle-east-and-africa/21656189-islams-most-conservative-adherents-are-finding-politics-hard-it-beats. Accessed May 23, 2018

The Economist (2014). Crime and punishment in Saudi Arabia: The other beheaders. http://www.economist.com/news/middle-east-and-africa/21618918-possible-reasons-mysterious-surge-executions-other-beheaders. Accessed May 21, 2018.

The Economist (2014). The slow backlash-Sunni religious authorities turn against Islamic State. http://www.economist.com/news/middle-east-and-africa/21615634-sunni-religious-authorities-turn-against-islamic-state-slow-backlash. Accessed May 21, 2018.

Wood G. (2015). What ISIS Really Wants. http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2015/03/what-isis-really-wants/384980/. Accessed June 1, 2018.

Winter C. (2015). Quilliam Translation and Analysis of Islamic State Manifesto on Jihadist Brides. http://www.quilliamfoundation.org/press/quilliam-translation-and-analysis-of-islamic-state-manifesto-on-jihadist-brides/. Accessed May 21, 2018.

Wright L. (2014). ISIS’s Savage Strategy in Iraq. http://www.newyorker.com/news/daily-comment/isiss-savage-strategy-in-iraq. Accessed May 21, 2019.

Yusuf H. (2014). The Crisis of ISIS: A Prophetic Prediction. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hJo4B-yaxfk. Accessed May 21, 2019.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.46827/ejpss.v0i0.690

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2019 Md Jaynal Abedin

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

The research works published in this journal are free to be accessed. They can be shared (copied and redistributed in any medium or format) and\or adapted (remixed, transformed, and built upon the material for any purpose, commercially and\or not commercially) under the following terms: attribution (appropriate credit must be given indicating original authors, research work name and publication name mentioning if changes were made) and without adding additional restrictions (without restricting others from doing anything the actual license permits). Authors retain the full copyright of their published research works and cannot revoke these freedoms as long as the license terms are followed.

Copyright © 2016 - 2018. European Journal Of Political Science Studies (ISSN 2601-2766) is a registered trademark. All rights reserved.

This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library. All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms. All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and standards formulated by Budapest Open Access Initiative (2002), the Bethesda Statement on Open Access Publishing (2003) and  Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities (2003) and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Copyrights of the published research works are retained by authors.


 

Hit counter