Marvin Wacnag Lidawan


Film and technology tend to be potential tools in defining the point of departure between traditional and contemporary teaching styles. Surveyed responses of randomly selected teachers reveal common standpoints on film and technology-based materials (FTBMs)’s sustainability as catalysts in language skills integration. Their assimilated viewpoints further corroborate that FTBMs can sustain teachers’ innovation in situating learners to 21st century real-world-learning environment due to their proliferation, didactic features and accessibility. Furthermore, it is indicated that when teachers’ productively incorporate FTBMs in pedagogy, they can have more promising instructive functions than their entertainment value. Moreover, the study demonstrates some language-related tasks models, implications and frameworks underpropped by congruent theories and others’ investigations in presenting techniques through FTBMs. It is recommended that a quantitative inquiry of this teaching strategy utilizing these materials be administered to more specific sets of varied respondents to scientifically demonstrate the extent of teachers’ practices and awareness sustained by advanced statistics to produce tangible principles that may facilitate effective language skills’ integration. This investigation fundamentally used descriptive analysis where symmetrical data is explicated by the mean while the modal values construed collated nominal data in interpreting respondents’ central tendencies. Percentages were employed in approaching other responses. Several formulated types of Likert Scales for analyses and descriptions played major roles in approximating used variables to engender responses about this edifying approach’s fortification.


Article visualizations:

Hit counter



skills integration, film education, film technology-based authentic materials, viewing skill, reading, writing, listening, speaking, task-based, innovative instruction, teaching approach

Full Text:



Aeix, N. (1988). Using film, video, and TV in the classroom. ERIC Digest, (11). Retrieved from

Atkin, C. (1976). Children's social learning from television advertising: research evidence on observational modeling of product consumption. Advances in Consumer Research, (3), 513-519.

Atlevik, O. E. and Arnseth, H. C. (2012). ICT, teaching and leadership: How do teachers experience the importance of ICT-supportive school leaders? Nordic Journal of Digital Literacy, (1):55-70.

Bender, L. & Katz. M. (Producer), Dhal, J. (Director). (2005). Great Raid. [Motion Picture]. USA & Australia: Miramax Films

Berardo, S. (2006). The use of authentic materials in the teaching of reading. The Reading Matrix, 6 (2), 60-69.

Boyd, V., & Robitaille, M. (1987). Composition and popular culture: From mindless consumers to critical writers. English Journal, 76 1), 51-53.

Brinton, D.M. (2001) .‘The use of media in language teaching. Teaching English as a second or foreign language.3rd ed. Boston: Heinle and Heinle.

Brown, D. (1994). Teaching by principles. An interactive approach to language pedagogy. USA: Prentice Hall.

Callow, J. “As I see it: Integrating viewing across the curriculum. New literacies: A professional development Wiki for educators. Developed under the aegis of the Improving Teacher Quality Project (ITQP), a federally funded partnership between Montclair State University and East Orange School District, New Jersey.” (2008). Retrieved from

Chai, J. & Erlam, R. (2008). The effect and the influence of the use of video and captions on second language learning. New Zealand Studies in Applied Linguistics, 14 (2), 25- 44. Retrieved from;dn=997746379301329;res=IEL NZC ISSN: 1173-5562

Chan, D., & Herrero, C. “Using movies to teach languages: A teachers’ toolkit.” (2010). Retrieved from media/toolkit-for-teachers-using-movie-to-teach-languages

Cıngıllıoğlu, S., Cıngıllıoğlu, S. & Cansız, G. (2016). Teaching TOEFL listening through films and simplified listening passages. Imperial Journal of Interdisciplinary Research, 2 (1), 2016, 265. Retrieved from

Córdoba Zúñiga, E. (2016). Implementing task-based language teaching to integrate language skills in an EFL program at a Colombian university. Profile Issues in Teachers' Professional Development, 18(2), 13-27.

Curtain, H. A., & Pesola, C. A. (1994). Languages and children: Making the match (2nd ed.). NY: Longman.

Davidson, C. & Goldberg, D. (2009). The future of learning institutions in a digital age. Cambridge, MIT Press.

Donaghy, K. “How can film help you teach or learn English?” (2014, October 21). Retrieved from magazine/how-can-film-help-you-teach-or-learn-english

Donato, R. (2000). Sociocultural contributions to understanding the foreign and second language classroom. In J. P. Lantolf (Ed). Sociocultural theory and second language learning. (pp.27-50). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Ferlazzo, L. (2010, January 2). The best movie scenes to use for English-language development. [Blog Post]. Retrieved english-language-development/

Flowerdew, J. & Miller L. (2005). Second language listening: Theory and practice, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Gallardo, E. J., de Oliveira, O., Molias, L., Mon, F. (2015). Digital competence in the knowledge society. Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, 11(1), 1-16.

Gardner, H. (2006). Multiple intelligences. New Horizons. New York: Basic Books.

Gardner, H. (1983). Frames of the mind: The theory of multiple intelligences. Basic Books.

Gardner, H. (1991). The Unschooled mind: How children think and how schools should teach. New York: Basic Books.

Gardner, H. (1999). Intelligence reframed: Multiple intelligences for the 21st century. Basic Books

Gardner, H. (2004). Changing Minds: The art and science of changing our own and other people’s minds. Harvard Business School Press

Gardner, H. (2006). Multiple intelligences: New Horizons. Basic Books.

Guieb, M. D. & Dela Cruz, R. (2017). Viewing teaching techniques in enhancing viewing comprehension skills of undergraduate students in literature. International Journal of Languages’ Education and Teaching, 5 (2), 271-279. doi: 09.05.2017 28.05.2017 30.06.2017 10.18298/ijlet.1762

Gupta, P. (2015 September 27). 4 Steps for Successful School Improvement in the 21st Century. (Blog Post). Retrieved from insights/insights/2125-school-improvement-plan

Hanley, J., Herron, C., & Cole, S. P. (1995). Using video as an advance organizer to a written passage in the FLES classroom. Modern Language Journal, 79, 57-66.

Haro, de, H. 2013, 'How do you ...? Use film viewing to enhance students’ analytical skills?’ Vida Hispánica, (47), 1-7. Retrieved from psredir=1&article=2010&context=lhapapers

Harmer, J. (1988). The practice of English language teaching. Edinburgh gate Harlow, England. Longman

Hatlevik, O. E., & Arnseth, H. C. (2012). ICT, teaching and leadership: How do teachers experience the importance of ICT-supportive school leaders? Nordic Journal of Digital Literacy, 7(1), 55–56. Retrieved from:

Hedge, T. (2000). Teaching and learning in the language classroom. Oxford: Oxford University Press

Iscan A. (2017). Using films in vocabulary teaching of Turkish as a foreign language. Journal of Education and Training Studies, 5 (5), 27-35. doi:10.11114/jets.v5i5.2245

Ismaili, M. (2013). The effectiveness of using movies in the EFL classroom – a study conducted at South East European University. Academic Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies, 2(4), 2013. Retrieved from

Istanto, J. (2009). The use of films as an innovative way to enhance language learning and cultural understanding. Centre for Language Studies. Electronic Journal of Foreign Language Teaching, 6(1), 278–290. Retrieved from

Jenkins, R. (2015). Integrating digital literacy into English language instruction: Companion learning resource. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Career, Technical, and Adult Education.

Jeremiah, M. (1987). Using television news and documentaries for writing instruction. Paper presented at the 38th Annual Meeting of the Conference on College Composition and Communication. Retrieved from

Jones, S. (2010 December 14). A not-so-small world: Teaching 21st century skills to English language learners. (Blog Post). Retrieved from teaching-21st-century-skills-to-english-language-learners

Jukes, I. (2008). Understanding digital kids: Teaching and learning in the new digital landscape. (Blog Post). Retrieved from

Kabooha, R. H. (2016). Using movies in EFL classrooms: A study conducted at the English Language Institute (ELI), King Abdul-Aziz University. Canadian Center of Science and Education: English Language Teaching; Canadian Center of Science and Education 9 (3); 2016. doi: 10.5539/elt.v9n3p248

Khan, A. (2015). Using films in the ESL classroom to improve communication skills of non-native learners. ELT Voices ELT Voices- International Journal for Teachers of English, 5(4), 46-52. Retrieved from

Kilickaya, F. (2004). Authentic materials and culture content in EFL classrooms. The Internet ELT Journal, 10(7). Available:

King, J. “Using DVD feature films in the EFL classroom.” (2002, February 1). Retrieved from http:

Kolb, David A. (1984). Experiential learning: experience as the source of learning and development. Prentice-Hall, Inc.

Krashen, S. (1982). Principles and practices in second language acquisition. NY: Pergamon Press.

Krashen, S. (1985). The input hypothesis: Issues and implications. NY: Longman.

Kress, G. (2003). Literacy in the new media age. London: Routledge.

Kvitnes, I. (2013). Subtitles in the second language classroom: An experimental study with Norwegian learners of English. Trondheim, spring 2013. Retrieved from d+Kvitnes+Master.pdf/5d0bb5fe-b010-479e-90e2-5939766aa2ac

Lertola, J. (2012). ‘The effect of the subtitling task on vocabulary learning’ in A. Pym and D. Orrego-Carmona (Eds.) Translation Research Project 4, Tarragona: Intercultural Studies Group, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, 61-70.

Lialikhova, D. (2014). The use of video in English language teaching: A case study in a Norwegian lower secondary school: University of Stavanger. Retrieved from

Lidawan, M. “Generating integrative linguistic skills from film loglines.” Ezine (2017, April 19). Retrieved from Loglines&id=9676782

Lidawan, M. “Written expositions through country music videos' elements.” (2017, October 9). Retrieved from Elements&id=9807516

Lidawan, M. (2014). Media awareness for pedagogical evolutions, Arab World English Journal. Special Issue on CALL, (1) 9-14. Retrieved from wacnag-lidawan

Lidawan, M.W. & Chua, R.E. (2018). Stimulating digital literacy participations’ frameworks: innovative and collaborative language projects. European Journal of Education Studies, 4 (6), 1-46.

doi: 10.5281/zenodo.1239068

Lidawan, M.W. & Gabayno, Jr. J.C. (2018). Underpinning film elements’ pedagogical feasibilities for creative writing. European Journal of Education Studies, (4)2, 221- 246. doi: 10.5281/zenodo.1182734

Lidawan, M.W. (2019). Reinforcing collaborative writing by order thinking skills with perceived viability. A Paper Presented during the 1st ELI End-of-Year Professional Development Convention, Jubail Industrial College, Royal Commission of Jubail, May 2018. European Journal of Literature, Language and Linguistics Studies, (3) 1, 34-69. doi: 10.5281/zenodo.2550897

Lidawan, M. “Enhancing order thinking skills through a film biography. “Ezine Articles. Com.” (2016, November 13). Retrieved from Biography&id=9573754

Lightbown, P. M. & Spada, N. (1993). How languages are learned. NY: Oxford University Press.

Lomicka, L. (1998). To gloss or not to gloss: An investigation of reading comprehension online. Language Learning and Technology, (1), 41-50. Retrieved from

Lovell, J. H. (1987). Where we stand. In "Report on film study in American schools." Report by the NCTE Committee on Film Study in the English Language Arts.

Lynch, L. “5 Reasons to use popular movies for English language teaching.” (21, April 2010). Retrieved from Use-Popular-Movies-for-English-Language-Teaching&id=287405

Masiello, F. (1985). "The lessons of popcorn." In Spielberger, Jeffrey (Ed.), Images and Words: Using film to teach writing cited by Aiex,N. (1988) Using Film, Video, and TV in the Classroom. ERIC Digest, (11) Retrieved from

Moss, R. (1987) "The next episode: Soap operas as a bridge to improved verbal skills," cited by Aiex, N. (1988) Using Film, Video, and TV in the Classroom. ERIC Digest, (11) Retrieved from

Burt, M. (1999). National center for ESL literacy education case [Blog Post]. Retrieved from

Met, M. (1991). Learning language through content: Learning content through language. Foreign Language Annals, 24 (4), 281-295.

Miller, R. “Deconstructing film posters.” (2011, September 2). Edusite Films. Retrieved from

Mannan, A. (2005). Modern education: Audio-visual aids. New Delhi: Anmol Publications.

Marshall, J.M. (2002). Learning with technology: Evidence that technology can, and does, support learning. White paper prepared for Cable in the Classroom.

Mayer, R.E. (2001). Multimedia learning. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Michas, I.C. & Berry, D.C. (2000). Learning procedural task: Effectiveness of multimedia Presentations. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 14 (6), 555–575.

Miller, M. (2009). What the science of cognition tells us about instructional technology. Change, 41(2), 16-17. doi: 1667020291

Min P. (2013). The use of multimedia technology in English language teaching: A global perspective. Crossing the Border. International Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies, 1(1), 29-38.

Marsh, C. (1996). Hand book for beginning teachers. South Melbourne, Australia. Longman.

Mayer, R. (2001). Multimedia learning. Cambridge University Press.

Nunan, D. (2004). Task-based language teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Nunan, D. (2005). Important tasks of English education: Asia-wide and beyond. Asian EFL Journal, 7(3),

Ohler, J. (2008). Digital storytelling in the classroom: New media pathways to literacy, learning and creativity. CA: Corwin Press.

Okojie, M., Olinzock, A. & Okojie-Boulder (2010). The pedagogy of technology integration .instructional delivery by teachers of technology and vocational education in Nigeria. An International Multi-Disciplinary Journal. . 4 (2), 355-369.

Omaggio, A.C. (1997). Pictures and second language comprehension: Do they help? Foreign Language Annals, 12(1), 107-116.

Oxford, R. (2001).Integrated skills in the ESL/EFL classroom. Center for Applied Linguistics, Eric Clearinghouse on Languages and Linguistics, (1), 1-2. Retrieved from

Patel, C. (2013). Use of multimedia technology in teaching and learning communication skill: An analysis. International Journal of Advancements in Research & Technology, 2(7), 116-173.

Papadopoulou, V. (2016). How to teach English through short films and documentaries. Who doesn’t love movies? [Blog Post]. Retrieved from

Parisi, L. (2016). The use of film-based materials for an adult English language course in Brazil. Linguist Campinas, 55 (1),

Pettersson, F. (2017). On the issues of digital competence in educational contexts – a review of literature. Educational Information Technology, (23), 1005-1021.

doi 10.1007/s10639-017-9649-3

Prensky, M. (2001). Digital natives, digital immigrants. On the Horizon, 9(5), Retrieved from pdf

Pysarchyk, O. & Yamshynska, N. (2015). The importance of integrating reading and writing for the EFL teaching. Advanced Education випуск, 3, 77-83.udc 372.881.1

Raman, M. G., & Vijaya. (2016). Reading through films. Advances in Language and Literary Studies, 7(1), 168-174. doi:10.7575/aiac.alls.v.7n.1p.1

Richards, J.C. & Rodgers, T.S. (2001). Approaches and methods in language teaching. Cambridge University Press

Rivers, W.M. (1981). Teaching foreign-language skills. The University of Chicago Press: Chicago

Robin, B. (2008). Digital storytelling: A powerful technology tool for the 21st century classroom. Theory into Practice, 47(3), 220-228.

Rokni, S. & Ataee, A. (2014). The effect of movie subtitles on EFL learners’ oral. International Journal of English Language, Literature and Humanities, 1(5), 2001- 2015. Retrieved from EFL-LearnersOral-Performance.pdf

Ruusunen, V. (2011). Using movies in EFL teaching: The point of view of teachers. (Master’s thesis). Retrieved from https://Jyx.Jyu.Fi/Dspace/Bitstream/Handle/123456789/37097/URN:NBN:Fi:Jyu20 11121611812.Pdf?Sequence=1

Safranja, J. & Obradovica,D. (2014). Advancing listening comprehension through movies. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 191, 169 – 173. Retrieved from

Santas, A. (2009). The eyes know it? Training the Eyes: A theory of visual literacy. Journal of Visual Literacy, 28 (2), 163-185.

Saxena,S. “21st century education 21st century learning administrators insights teachers/educators technology in classroom tips for administrators tips for teachers/educators.” ( 2013, December 20). Edtechreview. Retrieved from classroom

Shyamlee, S. (2012). Use of technology in English language teaching and learning: An analysis. 2012 International Conference on Language, Medias and Culture, IPEDR 33 (2012),

Sidek, H. (2012). EFL reading instruction: Communicative task- based approach. Journal of Instruction, 5 (2), 109-128. Retrieved from

Skehan, P. (1998). A cognitive approach to language learning. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Stewart. D. (2006). Film English: Using films to teach English. Taiwan Electronic Journal of English Education, (24), 2-17.Retrieved from

Sweeting, A. (2010), Activities for using films in English language teaching. International House Journal of Education and Development (29) autumn. Retrieved from arizio-sweeting

Sweeting, A. (2009). Language through film. Phoenix Education Pty

Tafani, V. (2009). Teaching English through mass media. Acta Didactica Nepocensia, 2 (1),88-89.

Tuncay, H. (2014). An integrated skills approach using feature movies in EFL at Tertiary. The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology13 (1), 56-63 Retrieved from http://Tojet.Net/Articles/V13i1/1315.Pdf

Ur, P. (1996). A Course in language teaching. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.

Wang, Y. (2009). Using films in the multimedia English class. English Language Teaching, 2 (1) pages 179-184. doi:10.5539/elt.v2n1p179

Waters, S. (2015, September 8). Free professional learning for educators by educators. Why educators use video. [Blog Post]. Retrieved from

Wells, G. (1994). The complementary contributions of Halliday and Vygotsky to a "language-based theory of learning." Linguistics and Education, 6, 41-90.

Williams, Z. (2014). The use of multimedia material in teaching Chinese as a second language and pedagogical implications. (Master’s thesis). Retrieved from

Williams III, S.E. (1999). Teaching academic skills through the exploration of music. [Blog Post]. Retrieved from

Woottipong, K. (2014). Effect of using video materials in the teaching of listening skills for university students. International Journal of Linguistics, 6 (4), 200-2012. Retrieved from

Wright, A. (1976). Visual materials for the language teacher, Essex, Longman Wilson.

Xhemaili, M. (2013). The advantages of using films to enhance student’s reading skills in the Classroom. Journal of Education and Practice, 4 (13). Retrieved from


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright © 2015. European Journal of English Language Teaching (ISSN 2501-7136) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing GroupAll rights reserved.

This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library (Biblioteca Nationala a Romaniei). All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms.

All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).