Rania Hassan Talafhah, Jarrah Mohammad Al-Jarrah, Tamer Mohammad Al-Jarrah


The purpose of this quantitative study was to identify the EFL learners’ practices and understand their experiences with SNSs (social networking sites) as a tool for English language learning. The study results were obtained from a survey of 144 undergraduate Jordanian EFL learners in the English and Translation Departments at Yarmouk University in Jordan. In the quantitative phase of the study, the research questions focused on the actual practices and strategies of EFL students on SNSs. This study was guided by the following research questions: To what extent do Jordanian EFL learners use Facebook as a tool for language learning? And what language learning practices do Jordanian EFL learners engage in on Facebook? The results revealed that most participants felt comfortable using Facebook in English language learning. However, less than half of them used Facebook on a regular basis to learn English. In addition, they tended to read and observe discussions in English rather than participate in them or produce language output. The results also revealed that learners’ practices or behaviors in the SNS environment changed depending on certain factors, such as the context, audience, sense of belonging, self – confidence, and the learners’ needs and interests. The results of the study brought to light some implications in the context of formal and informal language learning. The study might raise learner, teacher, and educator awareness about SNSs as a tool for language learning, particularly for countries with limited resources. The results also showed the need for a theoretical and pedagogical framework for the teaching and learning process that identifies the best practices and ways to avoid any harm in a SNS environment. Integrating SNSs in language teaching and learning is a topic that requires further study. Using SNSs inside and outside the classroom to practice different language skills is an important topic for future research.


Article visualizations:

Hit counter



communicative language teaching, ESL, EFL

Full Text:



Ahmed, R. A. Q. (2015). Online social networking and English language learning: A study of Yemeni English language learners (Unpublished master’s thesis). Southern Illinois University, Carbondale.

Al-Jarrah, J. M., Talafhah, R. H., & Al-Jarrah, T. M. (2019). social networking sites and English language learning: Jordanian EFL learners ‘practices and experiences. European Journal of English Language Teaching.

Al-Jarrah, T. M., Mansor, N., Talafhah, R. H., & Al-Jarrah, J. M. (2019). The application of metacognition, cognitivism, and constructivism in teaching writing skills. European Journal of Foreign Language Teaching.

Akbari, Z. (2015). Current challenges in teaching/learning English for EFL learners: The case of junior high school and high school. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 199, 394–401.

AlAamri, K. S. (2009). Using web 2.0 technologies to enhance academic writing proficiency among EES students in Sultan Qaboos University: An example of Facebook and blogs. In International Conference: The future of Education. Florence, Italy. Retrieved from https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/275d/6759d2d027707919c290094021b089feeed9.p df

Alm, A. (2015). Facebook for informal language learning: Perspectives from tertiary language students. The EuroCALL Review, 23(2), 3–18.

Álvarez Valencia, J. A. (2014). Language, learning, and identity in social networking sites for language learning: The case of Busuu (doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from ProQuest LLC.

Bicen, H., & Cavus, N. (2011). Social network sites usage habits of undergraduate students: Case study of Facebook. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 28, 943– 947.

Black, R. (2009). Online fan fiction, global identities, and imagination. Research in the Teaching of English, 43(4), 397–425.

Blattner, G., & Lomicka, L. (2012). Facebook-ing and the social generation: A new era of language learning. Alsic. Apprentissage des Langues et Systèmes d'Information et de Communication, 15(1), 115–144.

Cho, Y. S. (2012). Exploring second language (L2) learners' language learning experience in social networking environments (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). State University of New York, New York City.

Creswell, J. (2014). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Creswell, J. W., & Plano Clark, V. (2011). Designing and conducting mixed research methods. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Diepenbroek, L., & Derwing, T. (2013). To what extent do popular EFL textbooks incorporate oral fluency and pragmatic development. TESL Canada Journal, 30, 1– 20.

Dörnyei, Z., & Skehan, P. (2003). Individual differences in second language learning. The handbook of second language acquisition, 589-630.

Drbseh, M. M. H. (2013). The spread of English language in Jordan. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, 3(9), 1-5.

Ellison, N. B., Steinfield, C., & Lampe, C. (2011). Connection strategies: Social capital implications of Facebook-enabled communication practices. New Media & Society, 13(6), 873–892.

Eslami-Rasekh, Z. (2005). Raising the pragmatic awareness of language learners. ELT Journal, 59(3), 199–208.‏

Flanagin, A. J., & Metzger, M. J. (2007). The role of site features, user attributes, and information verification behaviors on the perceived credibility of web-based information. New Media & Society, 9(2), 319–342.

Flyvbjerg, B. (2011). Case study. In N. K. Denzin Y. S. & Lincoln (Eds.), The Sage handbook of qualitative research (pp. 301–316). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Foote, M. Q., & Bartell, T. G. (2011). Pathways to equity in mathematics education: How life experiences impact researcher positionality. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 78(1), 45–68.

Gitsaki, C. (1998). Second language acquisition theories: Overview and evaluation. Journal of Communication and International Studies, 4(2), 89–98.

Gliner, J. A., Morgan, G. A., & Leech, N. L. (2009). Research methods in applied settings: An integrated approach to design and analysis. New York, NY: Routledge.

Hamedani, S. H. H. (2013). The relationship between self-efficacy and self-regulation in vocabulary acquisition of Iranian EFL learners. Journal of Academic and Applied Studies, 3(1), 20–31.‏

Harrison, R., & Thomas, M. (2009). Identity in online communities: Social networking sites and language learning. International Journal of Emerging Technologies and Society, 7(2), 109–124.

Howell, D. (2012). Statistical methods for psychology. ‏Belmonet, CA: Cengage Learning.

Hsieh, H. W. (2012). Practices and strategies of self-initiated language learning in an online social network discussion forum: A descriptive case study (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Pennsylvania State University, State College.

Ishihara, N. (2010). Instructional pragmatics: Bridging teaching, research, and teacher education. Language and Linguistics Compass, 4(10), 938–953. doi:10.1111/j.1749- 818X.2010. 00242.x

Kabilan, M. K., Ahmad, N., & Abidin, M. J. Z. (2010). Facebook: An online environment for learning of English in institutions of higher education? The Internet and Higher Education, 13(4), 179–187.

Kao, P. C., & Craigie, P. (2014). Effects of English usage on Facebook and personality traits on achievement of students learning English as a foreign language. Social Behavior and Personality: An International Journal, 42(1), 17–24.

Kilickaya, F. (2004). Authentic materials and cultural content in EFL classrooms. The Internet TESL Journal, 10(7), 1–6.

Krashen, S. (1981). Second language acquisition and second language learning. Oxford, United Kingdom: Pergamon.

Lamy, M.-N., & Zourou, K. (2013). Social networking for language education. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan.

Lee, K., & Ranta, L. (2014). Facebook: Facilitating social access and language acquisition for international students? TESL Canada Journal, 31(2), 22–50.

Lin, C. H. (2012). Language learning through social networks: Perceptions and reality (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of California, Oakland.

Lin, C. Y., & Gan, X. N. (2014). Taiwanese college students’ use of English listening strategies and self-regulated learning. International Journal on Studies in English Language and Literature 2(5), 57–65.

Lin, K. Y., & Lu, H. P. (2011). Why people use social networking sites: An empirical study integrating network externalities and motivation theory. Computers in Human Behavior, 27(3), 1152–1161.

Lomicka, L., & Lord, G. (2016). Social networking and language learning. In F. Farr & L. Murray (Eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Language Learning and Technology, 255– 268.

Marley, D. (2013). The role of online communication in raising awareness of bilingual identity. Multilingua, 32(4), 485–505.

Mergel, B. (1998). Instructional design and learning theories. Retrieved from http://www.usask.ca/education/coursework/802papers/mergel/brenda.htm

Mondahl, M., & Razmerita, L. (2014). Social media, collaboration and social learning: A case-study of foreign language learning. Electronic Journal of e-Learning, 12(4), 339–352.

Pasfield-Neofitou, S. E. (2012). Online communication in a second language: Social interaction, language use, and learning Japanese. Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.

Pempek, T. A., Yermolayeva, Y. A., & Calvert, S. L. (2009). College students’ social networking experiences on Facebook. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 30(3), 227–238.

Plano Clark, V. L., & Creswell, J. V. (2010). Designing and conducting mixed methods research. London, UK: Sage.

Schugurensky, D. (2000). The forms of informal learning: Towards a conceptualization of the field. Wall Working Papers, (19). Retrieved from https://tspace.library.utoronto.ca/bitstream/1807/2733/2/19formsofinformal.pdf

Shafie, L. A., Yaacob, A., & Singh, P. K. K. (2016). Lurking and L2 learners on a Facebook group: The voices of the invisibles. English Language Teaching, 9(2), 1– 12.

Shively, R. L. (2011). L2 pragmatic development in study abroad: A longitudinal study of Spanish service encounters. Journal of Pragmatics, 43, 1818–1835. doi:10.1016/j.pragma.2010.10.030

Smith, G. (2008). Does gender influence online survey participation? A record-linkage analysis of university faculty online survey response behavior. ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 501717.

Sockett, G. (2014). Online informal learning of English. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.

Sockett, G., & Toffoli, D. (2012). Beyond learner autonomy. ReCALL, 24(2), 138–151.

Zhang, S. (2009). The role of input, interaction and output in the development of oral fluency. English Language Teaching, 2(4), 91–10

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.46827/ejel.v0i0.2276


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright © 2015. European Journal of English Language Teaching (ISSN 2501-7136) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing GroupAll rights reserved.

This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library (Biblioteca Nationala a Romaniei). All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms.

All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).