El Hassan Rouijel, Abdelmajid Bouziane


Teaching critical thinking skills is far from being an easy undertaking. Educators take it for granted that their knowledge of critical thinking makes them ready for critical thinking instruction. Within this framework, this study investigates the Moroccan educators’ perceptions of critical thinking basics together with their perceptions of critical thinking instruction. To do so, 90 English as foreign language (EFL) teachers and lecturers belonging to middle- and high-school and higher education filled in a questionnaire that was adopted in previous studies (Stedman and Adams, 2012). Findings show that regardless of the level being taught, the respondents replied to the questions related to their perceptions of critical thinking concepts with moderate consistency and accuracy. Similarly, many of their reactions to critical thinking instruction show they need more confidence to teach it.


Article visualizations:

Hit counter



critical thinking, knowledge, instruction, Morocco

Full Text:



Abdallaoui Maan, N. (2012). Critical thinking and the Moroccan educational context‬. Al-Madrassa al-maghribiya, 4-5, 26-48.

Ait Bouzid, H. (2016). Boosting 21st century skills through Moroccan ELT textbooks. Journal of English Language Teaching and Linguistics, 1(2), 97-108. doi:10.21462/jeltl.v1i2.24

Bailin, S., Case, R., Coombs, J. R., & Daniels, L. B. (1999). Common misconceptions of critical thinking. ournal of Curriculum Studies, 31(3), 269-283. doi:10.1080/002202799183124

Benjelloun, M., & El Kirat, Y. (2019). Blooms taxonomy and Moroccan children’s vocabulary and critical thinking skills development. Arab World English Journal (AWEJ), 10(2), 342 -352. doi:10.24093/awej/vol10no2.26

Beyer, B. K. (1985). Critical thinking: What is it? Social Education, 49, 2070-276.

Bouanani, N. (2014). Enhancing critical thinking skills and dispositions through reflective writing among Moroccan university students. Unpublished doctoral thesis. Rabat: Faculty of Education.

Bouziane, A. (1997). What research tells us about reading in Morocco. MATE Newsletter, 18(2), 8-10.

Chouari, A. (2016). Teaching critical thinking in Moroccan higher education: Challenges and opportunities. Arab World English Journal (AWEJ), 7(2), 457-467. doi:10.24093/awej/vol7no2.31

Chouari, A., & Nachit, M. (2016). Teaching and assessing 21st century critical thinking skills in Morocco: A case study. Arab World English Journal (AWEJ), 7(4), 21-41. doi:10.2139/ssrn.2898614

Cuban, L. (1984). Policy and research dilemmas in the teaching of reasoning: Unplanned designs. Review of Educational Research, 54(4), 655-681. doi:10.2307/1170178

Duron, R., Limbach, B., & Waugh, W. (2006). Critical thinking framework for any discipline. International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, 17(2), 160-166.

Elboubekri, A. (2013). Multilingual education in Morocco and the question of cultural identity: Toward implementing a critical thinking approach in high school English textbooks. Educational Research and Reviews, 8(20), 1930-1936. doi:10.5897/ERR2013.1576

Ennis, R. H. (1987). A taxonomy of critical thinking dispositions and abilities. In J. B. Baron, & R. J. Sternberg, Teaching Thinking Skills: Theory and Practice (pp. 9-26). New York: W.H. Freeman & Co.

Es-salhi, A., & Elfatihi, M. (2019). Evaluating critical thinking skills in Moroccan EFL textbooks: Gateway to English 2 as a case. Higher Education of Social Science, 17(1), 13-22. doi:10.3968/11284

Ezzaki, A. (1986). Questioning in Language Education. Proceedings of the Sixth Annual Conference of MATE, (pp. 10-18).

Fisher, R. (2002). Creative Minds: Building communities of learning for the creative age. Paper at Teaching Qualities Initiative Conference, Hong Kong Baptist University. Hong Kong. Retrieved July 10, 2018, from

Forrester, J. C. (2008). Thinking creatively; thinking critically. Asian Social Sciences, 4(5), 100-105.

Frey, C. B., & Osborne, M. A. (2013). The future of employment: How susceptible are jobs to computerisation? Oxford Martin School Working Paper No. 7, 1-72.

Glaser, E. M. (1985). Critical thinking: Educating for responsible citizenship in a democracy. National Forum: Phi Kappa Phi Journal, 65(1), 24-27.

Halpern, D. F. (2014). Thought and knowledge: An introduction to critical thinking. New York: Taylor & Francis.

Jebbour, M. (2016). Critical thinking in the Moroccan textbooks of English: Ticket to English as a case study. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, International Science Index, Cognitive and Language Sciences, 10(1).

Jebbour, M. (2019). Exploring the manifestation of critical thinking in the Moroccan textbooks of English: The case of "Ticket 2 English". Journal of English Educators Society, 4(1), 39-45. doi:10.21070/jees.v4i1.1783

Kemp, C. (1963). Improvement of critical thinking in relation to open-closed belief systems. The Journal of Experimental Education, 31(3), 321-323.

Koestler, A. (1975). The act of creation. London: Pan Books.

Kurfiss, J. G. (1988). Critical thinking: Theory, research, practice, and possibilities. ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Reports, ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report No. 2. Washington, DC: The George Washington University, One Dupont Circle, Suite 630, Dept. RC, Washington, DC 20036-1183.

Lewis, A., & Smith, D. (1993). Defining higher order thinking. Theory Into Practice, 32(3), 131-137. Retrieved February 20, 2017, from

Ministry of Education. (2007). English language guidelines for secondary. Rabat: La Société Nadia Edition. Retrieved January 26, 2019, from

Morgan, W. R. (1995). "Critical Thinking": What does that Mean? Searching for a definition of a crucial intellectual process. Journal of College Science Teaching, 24(5), 336-340. Retrieved October 27, 2017, from

Mrah, I. (2017). Developing higher order thinking skills: Towards a rethinking of EFL coursebooks in Moroccan high schools. Journal of English Language Teaching and Linguistics, 2(3), 225-243. doi:10.21462/jeltl.v2i3.79

Novella, S. (2012). Your deceptive mind: A scientific guide to critical thinking skills. Chantilly, VA: The Teaching Company.

Perkins, D. N., Jay, E., & Tishman, S. (1993). Beyond abilities: A dispositional theory of thinking. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 39(1), 1-21.

Perkins, D., Tishman, S., Ritchhart, R., Donis, K., & Andrade, A. (2000). Intelligence in the wild: A dispositional view of intellectual traits. Educational Psychology Review, 12(3), 269-293.

Rouijel, H., Bouziane, A., & Zohri, A. (2019). The effect of explicit instruction in critical thinking on higher-order thinking skills in reading comprehension: An experimental study. European Journal of English Language Teaching, 5(1), 114-126. doi:10.5281/zenodo.3382955

Stedman, N. L., & Adams, B. L. (2012). Identifying faculty’s knowledge of critical thinking concepts and perceptions of critical thinking instruction in higher education. NACTA Journal, 56(2), 9-14.

Zaki, A., Najbi, M., & Chaibi, A. (2013). Critical thinking skills in English language education. MATE’s 32nd Annual Conference.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright © 2015 - 2022. European Journal of English Language Teaching (ISSN 2501-7136) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing GroupAll rights reserved.

This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library (Biblioteca Nationala a Romaniei). All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms.

All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).