Chau Ngoc Tran, Huan Buu Nguyen


Scaffolding has held great appeal for teachers of English as a foreign language (EFL) and scholars in helping students take greater responsibility or ownership in their language learning and reach academic success. However, little is known about how teachers perceived this type of support as improving students’ reading comprehension in English within the teaching and learning context in Vietnam high schools. This paper therefore reports a descriptive study that explored teachers’ perceptions of scaffolding EFL students’ reading comprehension at high schools in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. Questionnaires and semi-structured interviews were employed to collect data from seventy-nine high school teachers. The findings provide insightful views into teachers’ perceptions about scaffolding students’ reading comprehension. The findings also reveal how teachers experienced varying degrees of their perceptions of scaffolding and challenges while delivering their scaffolding practices in reading instruction.

Article visualizations:

Hit counter


teachers’ perceptions, scaffolding, reading comprehension

Full Text:



Ankrum, J. W., Genest, M. T., & Belcastro, E. G. (2014). The power of verbal scaffolding: "Showing" beginning readers how to use reading strategies. Early Childhood Education Journal, 42, 39-47.

Belland, B. R. (2014). Scaffolding: Definition, current debates, and future directions. In J. Spector, M. Merrill, J. Elen & M. Bishop (Eds.), Handbook of Research on Educational Communications and Technology (4th Ed. ed., pp. 505-518). New York, NY: Springer.

Bernhardt, E. B. (2011). Understanding advanced second language reading. New York: Routledge.

Booth, D. (2012). Scaffolding during the formal assessment of young EAL learners: A New Zealand case study. Australian Review of Applied Linguistics, 35(1), 5-27.

Boyatzis, R. E. (1998). Transforming qualitative information: Thematic analysis and code development Thousand Oaks, California: SAGE Publications, Inc.

Eggen, P., & Kauchak, D. (2001). Educational psychology: Windows on classrooms (5th Ed.). Upper Saddle, River, NJ: Merrill Prentice-Hall.

Enyew, C., & Yigzaw, A. (2015). Effects of teacher scaffolding on students' reading comprehension. Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal, 4(2), 263-271.

Fraenkel, J. R., Wallen, N. E., & Hyun, H. H. (2012). How to design and evaluate research in education (8th Ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill Humanities.

Gibbons, P. (2015). Scaffolding language, scaffolding learning: Teaching English language learners in the mainstream classroom (2nd Ed.). Portsmouth, NH: Heinmann.

Grabe, W. (2009). Reading in a second language: Moving from theory to practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Herawati, C., Gani, S. A., & Muslim, A. (2020). The implementaton of scaffolding reading experience strategy in increasing students' comprehension. Journal of Language Teaching and Linguistics, 1(2), 102-113.

Hong, T. D., & Nguyen, H. B. (2019). Teacher beliefs and practices of scaffolding students' reading comprehension through questioning at pre-reading stage. European Journal of Foreign Language Teaching, 4(2), 72-92. doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3270743

Israel, S. E., & Duffy, G. G. (2009). Handbook of research on reading comprehension. Madison Ave, NY: USA: Routledge Taylor & Francis Group.

Lapan, S. D., & Quartaroli, M. T. (2009). Research essentials: An introduction to designs and practices. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

McKenzie, L. D. (2001). Scaffolding English language learners' reading performance. (PhD PhD), Walden University.

Ministry of Education and Training. (2008). Teaching and learning foreign languages in the national education system from 2008 to 2020. Hanoi, Vietnam: Retrieved from http://tailieu.vn/doc/de-an-day-va-hoc-ngoai-ngu-trong-he-thong-giao-duc-quoc-dan-1331102.html.

Nguyen, H. B. (2014). Teacher change in science education in a Vietnamese university. (Ph.D.), Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand.

Nguyen, H. G. T., & Nguyen, H. B. (2019). Teachers' perceptions about vocabulary instruction through flashcards at English language centers in the Mekong Delta city. i-manager's Journal on English Language Teaching, 9(3), 36-48.

Nguyen, T. C., & Nguyen, H. B. (2020). Teachers' perceptions about using songs in vocabulary instruction to young language learners. Universal Journal of Educational Research, 8(6), 2678-2685. doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.13189/ujer.2020.080652

Nuttall, C. (2005). Teaching reading skills in a foreign language (2nd Ed.). Oxford: Macmillan Heinemann.

Pearson, P. D. (2009). The roots of reading comprehension instruction. In S. E. Israel & G. G. Duffy (Eds.), Handbook of research on reading comprehension (pp. 1-31). New York: Routledge, Taylor and Francis Group.

Proctor, C. P., Dalton, B., & Grisham, D. L. (2007). Scaffolding English language learners and struggling readers in a university literacy environment with embedded strategy instruction and vocabulary support. Journal of Literacy Research, 39(1), 71-93.

Reed, B., & Railsback, J. (2003). Strategies and resources for mainstream teachers of English language learners (E. D. R. Service, Trans.).

Reynolds, D., & Daniel, S. (2018). Toward contingency in scaffolding reading comprehension: Next steps for research. Reading Research Quarterly, 53(3), 363-373.

Richards, J. C., & Schmidt, R. (2010). Longman dictionary language teaching and applied linguistics (4th Ed.). London, Britain: Pearson.

Rodgers, E. (2017). Scaffolding word solving while reading: New research insights. The Reading Teacher, 70(5), 525-532.

Salem, A. (2017). Scaffolding reading comprehension skills English Language Teaching, 10(1), 97-111.

Snow, C. E. (2002). Reading for understanding: Toward a research and development program in reading comprehension. Santa Monica: RAND Corporation.

van de Pol, J., Volman, M., & Beishuizen, J. (2010). Scaffolding in teacher-student interaction: A decade of research. Educational Psychology Review, 22(3), 271-296. doi: https://doi.org/10.2007/s10648-010-9127-6

Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind in society. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Walqui, A. (2006). Scaffolding instruction for English language learners: A conceptual framework. The International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 9(2), 159-180.

Ward, M. O., Grinstein, G., & Keim, D. (2015). Interactive data visualization: Foundations, techniques, and applications. New York: CRC Press.

Wood, D., Bruner, J., & Ross, G. (1976). The role of tutoring in problem solving. Journal of Child Psychology and Child Psychiatry, 17, 89-100.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.46827/ejel.v6i5.3854


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright © 2015 - 2022. European Journal of English Language Teaching (ISSN 2501-7136) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing GroupAll rights reserved.

This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library (Biblioteca Nationala a Romaniei). All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms.

All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).