Anh Lan Pham


This paper examines the impact of indirect feedback on learners’ grammatical errors in English as a Foreign Language (EFL) writing classes. It also considers students’ attitudes towards indirect feedback. Fifty-six eleventh-grade students and one teacher-researcher participated in this empirical study. Three instruments used to collect both quantitative and qualitative data were pretest, posttest and delayed test on English writing as well as a questionnaire and individual interview on students’ attitudes towards indirect feedback. The results showed that the students in the experimental condition committed many fewer grammatical errors than their counterparts in the control group when errors were treated as a single group. The results also indicated that indirect feedback helped reduce more error categories and more errors in each category, especially those related to the simple past tense. Moreover, the participants in the experimental group had positive attitudes toward indirect feedback. These findings support the claim that indirect feedback may help reduce grammatical errors in student writing.

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indirect feedback, grammatical errors, attitudes, error categories, writing

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