Damla S. Yildirim, Murat Bilge, Emine Caglar


The aim of this study was to examine effects of a training program based on longitudinal training of athlete development approach on gross motor skills among 6-8 years old children. Participants of Multi Branches Talent Identification and Development Project (n = 54), Basketball School players (n = 55) and a control group (n = 50) participated in the study. Multi Branches group attended to training sessions lasted 90 minutes, three days in a week for six months. Test of Gross Motor Development-2 test was used to assess development of locomotor and object control skills of the three groups before and after 6-months training period. Wilcoxon test indicated that post-test scores of Test of Gross Motor Development-2 were significantly higher than pre-test scores for all three groups (p<.001). Kruskal Wallis test results showed that there were statistically significant differences between three groups on the object control and total scores of Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (p<.001) but no differences on the locomotor scores of the test. The development percentage of Multi Branches group was higher than those of the other two groups. As a result, it can be concluded that the training program based on Long Term Athlete Development approach improved object control skills of 6-8 years old children.


Article visualizations:

Hit counter



test of gross motor development-2, multi branches talent identification, motor development

Full Text:



Balyi, I., Hamilton, A. (2004). Long-term athlete development: trainability in childhood and adolescence. Windows of Opportunity. Optimal Trainability. Victoria: National Coaching Institute British Columbia & Advanced Training and Performance Ltd.

Balyi, I., Way, R., Higgs, C. (2013). Long term athlete development. Champaign: Human Kinetics, 13-15; 22-25; 49-240; 257-351.

Bilge, M., Deliceoglu, G., Bagdatli, S., Caliskan, O. (2010). Multi-branches talent identification and development project; a pilot study, 1. Child and Sport Congress. Lefkosa: KKTC, 58.

Bilge, M., Deliceoglu, G., Simsek, B. (2014). The effects of training frequency on development of some biomotorabilities in children. Int J Acad Res; 6: 57-61.

Boz, M., Aytar, A. (2012). The effects of the fundamental movement education on preschool children’s movement skills. Hacettepe U J Educ.; 1: 51-59.

Cools, W., Martelaer, K.D., Samaey, C., Andries, C. (2009). Movement skill assessment of typically developing preschool children: a review of seven movement skill assessment tools. J Sport Sci Med.; 8: 154-168.

Folio, R.M., Fewell, R.R. (2002). Peabody scales of motor development. Austin, TX: Pro- Ed, Inc.

Furuno, S. et al. (1994). Revised Hawaii early learning profile. Palo Alto, CA: VORT Corporation.

Gallahue, D.L., Ozmun, J.C., Goodway, J.D. (2012). Understanding motor development. infants, children, adolescents, adults (7th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

Gardner, M.F. (2003) Test of handwriting skills manual. Novato, CA: Academic Therapy Publications.

Gursel, F. (2014). Inclusive intervention to enhance the fundamental movement skills of children without hearing: a preliminary study. Percept Motor Skill: Phys Dev Meas.; 118: 304-315.

Haugen, T., Johansen, B.T. (2018). Difference in physical fitness in children with initially high and low gross motor competence: A ten-year follow-up study. Human Movement Science 62: 143-149.

Kerkez, F. (2013). An overview of TGMD-2 practices in the evaluation of motor development among children in Turkey. Hacettepe J Sport Sci.; 24: 245-256.

Logan, S.W., Robinson, L.E., Rudisill, M.E., Wadsworth, D.D., Morera, M. (2014). The comparison of school-age children's performance on two motor assessments: the test of gross motor development and the movement assessment battery for children. Phys Educ Sport Pedagogy; 19: 48-59.

Mengutay, S. (2005). Movement development and sports in children. Istanbul: Morpa Publications, 25-40; 57-77.

Muratli, S. (2013). Child and sport. Ankara: Nobel Publications, 3. Edition, 29-42.

Morais, J.E., Marques, M.C., Marinho, D.A., Silva, A.J., Barbosa, T.M. (2014). Longitudinal modelling in sports: Young swimmers’ performance and biomechanics profile. Human Movement Science 37: 111-122.

Oberer, N., Gashaj, V., Roebers, C.M. (2017). Motor skills in kindergarten: Internal structure, cognitive correlates and relationships to background variables. Human Movement Science 52: 170-180.

Ozer, D., Ozer, K. (2004). Motor development in children. Ankara: Nobel Publication.

Savelsberg, G.J.P., Haans, S.H.A., Kooijman, M.K., Van Kampen, P.M. (2010). A method to identify talent: Visual search and locomotion behavior in young football players. Human Movement Science 29: 764-776.

Schafer, D., Moersch, S., Martha, S. (1981). Developmental programming for infants and young children. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.

Sevim, Y. (2002). Training information. Ankara: Nobel Publication.

Tepeli, K. (2013). Effects of object control skill training given together with frostig visual perception training program on object control skills of 54-59 month old children. Selçuk Univ Soc Inst Sci.; 29: 251.

Tsapakidou, A., Stefanidou, S., Tsompanaki, E. (2014). Locomotor development of children aged 3.5 to 5 years in nursery schools in Greece. Can Center Sci Educ.; 6: 1.

Ulrich, D. (2000). Test of gross motor development – 2. Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.

Valentini, N., Rudisill, M. (2000). Mastery motivational climate motor skill ıntervention: replication and follow-up. Res Q Exercise Sport,; 71: 60.

Valentini, N.C. (2012). Validity and reliability of the TGMD-2 for Brazilian children. J Motor Behav.; 44: 275-280.

Williams, H.G., Pfeiffer, K.A., Dowda, M., Jeter, C., Jones, S., Pate, R.R. (2009). A field- based testing protocol for assessing gross motor skills in preschool children: the children's activity and movement in preschool study motor skills protocol. Meas Phys Educ Exerc Sci.; 13: 151-165.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.46827/ejpe.v0i0.2190


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2019 Damla S. Yildirim, Murat Bilge, Emine Caglar

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Copyright © 2015 - 2023. European Journal of Physical Education and Sport Science (ISSN 2501 - 1235) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing Group. All rights reserved.

This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library (Biblioteca Nationala a Romaniei). All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms. All authors who send their manuscripts to this journal and whose articles are published on this journal retain full copyright of their articles. All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).