MANAGEMENT STRUCTURE OF ”SKY SQUARES / GÖKMEYDAN" AND “SPORTS LODGES” WHICH WERE THE SPORTS-MAKING AND WAR-PHYSICAL EDUCATION INSTITUTION IN THE SELJUK EMPIRE - AN INVESTIGATION OF THEIR EFFECTS ON THE SELJUK ECONOMY

Abdurrahman Kepoğlu

Abstract


The first information about the use of the squares was reached at the time of the Gokturks and continued with the Seljuk Empire. In the cosmology of the Seljuk Empire period, the sky squares / (Gokmeydan) provided the four basic elements which were; economy, military physical education, socialization, and sport. One of the most important elements to be considered about the sport was the establishment and operation of Sky square / (Gokmeydan) institutions while Seljuks were urbanizing. Even, it is known that Nizam al-Mulk, vizier of Sultan Malik-Shah I, was working on this issue intensively (İşcan, 1988). In this way, the sport was organized by the state to organize the sports, as well as sportsman training, protection, and nutrition. The sport was also influenced by the changing urbanization culture. In particular, it played an active role in ensuring security and urbanization in rural areas. The most striking example of this was the establishment of sports lodges for various branches in rural areas where urbanization was possible. As urbanization began, these sports lodges and buildings belonged to those lodges became a district of the city. To become the best fighting society, the Seljuk Empire reached its goal using its all facilities through Sky squares and Sports lodges. In addition to military physical education (both man and horse in terms of the period), Sky squares/ (Gokmeydan) and Sport lodges, which were opened to the people living in the city on certain days of the week, caused the public to operate in various sports branches as well as the establishment of enterprises that produce sports instruments of their interest and contribute to Seljuk economy. 

 

Article visualizations:

Hit counter

DOI

Keywords


management structure, Sky Squares / Gökmeydan, Sports Lodges, Seljuk Empire

Full Text:

PDF

References


Akdoğan, G. (1962), İstanbul Peyzajının Tanziminde Peyzaj Mimarisi ile İlgili Problemler ve Ana Prensipleri. A.Ü.Z.F. Yayınları 194, Çalışma Dizisi 123, AÜ. Basımevi, Ankara.

Artuk, İ., Artuk, C. (2003), Bazı İslam Şehirlerinde Hangi Devletler Sikke Kesmiş ve Bu Şehirlere Ne Gibi İsimler Verilmiş, TTK Belleteni, (LXIV:249), 421-446

Atabeyoğlu, C. (1984), Olimpiyatlar, Dışbank Yayını.

Aybay, R. (2005), Sosyalizmin Öncülerinden Robert Owen Yaşamı, Eylemi, Öğretisi, Şefik Matbaası, İstanbul.

Baykara, T. (1998), Türkiye Selçukluları Devrinde Konya, 2. Baskı, Konya.

Creswell, J.W. (2012). Educational Research: Planning, Conducting and Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Research, 4th Edition, Pearson Education İnc., Publishing as Pearson, USA.

Divitcioğlu, S. (2015), Oğuzdan, Selçukluya, Alfa Basım Yayım Dağıtım San. Ve Tic. Ltd. Şti., İstanbul.

Foucault, M. (2006), Hapishanenin Doğuşu, (Çev. Mehmet Ali Kılıçbay), İstanbul: İmge Kitabevi.

Gumilev L.N. (2001) Kavimlerin Türeyişi ve Yeryüzü Üzerindeki Yaşam Bölgeleri, (çev: Nuri Eyüpoğlu), Ötüken Yayınları, İstanbul.

Güven, Ö. (1992), Spor Anlayışımız ve Sporun Sosyo-Psikolojik İşlevi, G.E.F. Dergisi, Cilt:8, Sayı:1, ss.40-48, Ankara.

İşcan, F. (1988) Türklerde Spor, Milli Eğitim Basımevi, Ankara.

Kepoğlu, A. (2018), Göktürk Devletinde Spor Yönetimi ve Organizasyonu, Lambert Academic Publishing, ISBN:978-613-6-91644-6.

Kinzler, İ. (1947), Die Leibesübungen Der Zentralasia Tischen Völker Inaugural dissertation Zur Eirangung Des Doktorgrades, Grazim, November.

Köymen M.A. (1992), Türkiye Selçuklu Devletinde Ekonomik Hayat, Türk Dünyası Tarih Dergisi, Sayı:65, Mayıs, ss.16-27.

Köymen, M., A. (1992), Büyük Selçuklu İmparatorluğu Tarihi, C. III, Ankara.

Kuban, D. (2001), Selçuklu Sanat Dünyası, Alaaddin’in Lambası: Anadolu’dan Önce Türklerin Sanat Ortaklıkları), Cem Yayınları, İstanbul.

Küçükerbaş E.B. (1994), Bir Meydan Tasarım Sürecinin Germencik Örneğinde Ortaya Konulması. E.Ü. Ziraat Fakültesi Peyzaj Mimarlığı Bölümü Bilim Ofset, Bornova. İzmir.

Metin, T. (2013), Türkiye Selçuklu Şehirlerinde “Meydan” Kültürü, Tarih İncelemeleri Dergisi, XXVIII/1, ss.209-222.

Özcan K. (2006), Anadolu’da Selçuklu Kentler Sistemi ve Mekansal Kademelenme (1), METU JFA (23:2) 21-61.

Öztürk, M. (1996), İbn Bîbî, El-Evâmirü’l-Alâiyye Fî’l-Umûri’l-Alâiyye, Türkçe Tercüme: Mürsel Öztürk, Ankara, 1996.

Ritter, H. (2010), Ata Binmek, Ok Atmak., Türkiyat Mecmuası, 4 (0), 45-48, Retrieved from http://dergipark.gov.tr/iutürkiyat/issue/184499/194.

Şeşen R. (2001), İslâm Coğrafyacılarına Göre Türkler ve Türk Ülkeleri, Ankara: TTK.

Taylor, F.W. (2016), Bilimsel Yönetimin İlkeleri, The Principles of Scientific Management, (Çev: H. Bahadır Akın), Adres Yayınları, Ankara.

Neuman, W., L. (2006). SOCİAL RESEARCH METHODS, Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches, 6.Edition of pearson education-Allyn Bacon, USA.

Uğurlu, M. (1987), Mûnyetû’l-Gûzât (Haz. Mustafa Uğurlu), Ankara: T.C. Kültür ve Turizm Bakanlığı Yayınları, 1987.

Yıldıran, İ. (1999), Kavramsal Ve Fonksiyonel Açıdan Türklerde Yorga/Rahvan Biniciliğin Tarihsel Gelişimi Ve Türkiye’de Geliştirme Perspektifleri, Gazi Beden Eğitimi ve Spor Bilimleri Dergisi, (Gazi BESBD), IV,2: 43-58.

Yıldız, S.M. (2009), Katılıma Dayalı Spor Hizmetlerinde Hizmet Kalitesi Modelleri. Ege Akademik Bakış, 9(4), 1213-1224.

Yıldız, S.M. (2010), Spor ve Fiziksel Etkinlik Hizmetleri Pazarlaması. Ankara: Detay Yayınevi.

Zucker, P. (1959), Town and Square from Agora to the Village Green, Colombia University Press, New York.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.46827/ejpe.v0i0.2252

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2019 Abdurrahman Kepoğlu

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Copyright © 2015-2022. European Journal of Physical Education and Sport Science (ISSN 2501 - 1235) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing Group. All rights reserved.


This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library (Biblioteca Nationala a Romaniei). All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms. All authors who send their manuscripts to this journal and whose articles are published on this journal retain full copyright of their articles. All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).