Nihar Ranjan Mohanty, Avinash Tiwari, Shyamal Koley


The endeavour of this study was to find out the effects of various lower extremity biomechanical alignment variables on Q-angles bilaterally in state level female basket-ball players. Fifty, State level female basket-ball players from various sports clubs of Odisha, between the age group of 18-27 years (Mean ± SD: age 22.25±2.97yrs, height 156.10±5.68cm, weight 53.64±6.71, BMI 22.01±2.46kg/m2) volunteered to participate in the study. Seven anthropometric variables, i.e. height, weight, Body Mass Index (BMI), total leg length bilaterally and lower leg length bilaterally were measured. Bilateral six lower extremity alignment variables, i.e. tibiofemoral angle, femur anteversion, Q-angle, genu recurvatum, tibial torsion, navicular drop were measured on each subject following standard techniques. Statistical analyses of data were performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20.0. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Significant positive correlation of right Q-angle was seen with right tibiofemoral angle, right femoral anteversion, right genu recurvatum and right navicular drop. Whereas, significant positive correlation of left Q-angle was observed with left tibiofemoral angle, left femoral anteversion, left tibial torsion and left navicular drop.


Article visualizations:

Hit counter



basket-ball, Q-angle, anthropometry, femoral anteversion, tibiofemoral angle, tibial torsion, genu recurvatum

Full Text:



Powers C.M., Maffucci R., Hampton S. Rear foot posture in subjects with patellofemoral pain. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy 1995; 22(4): 155-160.

Daneshmandi H., Saki F. The study of static lower extremity posture in female athletes with ACL injuries. Harkat Sport Medicine 2009; 1: 75-91.

Griffin L.Y. Understanding and prevention noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injuries. The American Journal of Sports Medicine 2006; 34(9): 1512-1532.

Loudon J., Jenkis W., Loudon K. The relationship between static posture and ACL injury in female athletes. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy 1996; 24(2): 91-97.

Myer G.D., Ford K.R, Paterno M.V., Nick T.G., Hewett T.E. The effect of general joint laxity on risk of anterior cruciate ligament injury in young female athletes. The American Journal of Sports Medicine 2008; 36(6): 1073-1080.

Hintermann B., Nigg B.M. Pronation in Runners. Implications for injuries. Sports Medicine 1998; 26 (3): 169-176.

Nguyen A.D., Shultz S.J. Sex differences in clinical measures of lower extremity alignment. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy 2007; 37(7): 389–398.

Heiderscheit B.C., Hamill J., Caldwell G.E. Influence of Q-angle on lower-extremity running kinematics. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy 2000; 30(5): 271-278.

Mckeon J.M., Hertel J. Sex differences and representative values for 6 lower extremity alignment measures. Journal of Athletic Training 2009; 44(3):249-255.

Hertel J., Dorfman J.H., Braham R.A. Lower extremity malalignments and anterior cruciate ligament injury history. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine 2004; 3: 220-225.

Braten M.., Tarjesen T., Rossvoll I.. Femoral anteversion in normal adults. Acta Orthopaedica Scandinavica 1992; 63(1): 29-32.

Prasad R., Vettivel S., Isaac B., Chandi G. Angle of torsion of the femur and its correlates. Clinical anatomy 1996; 9(2): 109-117.

Hsu R.W., Himeno S., Coventry M.B., Chao E.Y. Normal axial alignment of the lower extremity and load-bearing distribution at the knee. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research 1990; (255): 215-227.

Woodland L.H, Francis R.S. Parameters and comparisons of the quadriceps angle of college-aged men and women in the supine and standing positions. The American Journal of Sports Medicine 1992; 20(2): 208–211.

Trimble M.H., Bishop M.D., Buckley B.D., Fields L.C., Roze G.D. The relationship between clinical measurements of lower extremity posture and tibial translation. Clinical Biomechanics (Bristol, Avon) 2002; 17(4): 286-290.

Staheli L.T., Corbett M., Wyss C., King H. Lower-extremity rotational problems in children. Normal values to guide management. The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 1985; 67: 39-47.

Sobel E., Levitz S.J., Caselli M.A., Tran M., Lepore F., Lilja E., Sinaie M., Wain E. Reevaluation of the relaxed calcaneal stance position. Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association 1999; 89: 258-264.

Jansson A., Saartok T., Werner S., Renstrom P. General joint laxity in 1845 Swedish school children of different ages: Age- and gender- specific distributions. Acta Paediatrica 2004; 93(9): 1202-1206.

Upadhyay S.S., Burwell R.G., Moulton A., Small P.G., Wallace W.A. Femoral anteversion in healthy children. Application of a new method using ultrasound. Journal of Anatomy 1990; 169: 49-61.

Salenius P., Vanka E. The development of tibiofemoral angle in children. Journal of Bone Surgery 1975; 57(A): 259-261.

Penha P.J., Joao S.M.A., Casarotto R.A., Amino C.J., Penteado D.C. Postural assessment of girls between 7 and 10 years of age. Clinics 2005; 60(1): 9-16.

Cahuzac J.P., Vardon D., Sales de Gauzy J. Development of the tibiofemoral angle in normal adolescents. A study of 427 normal subjects from 10 to 16 years of age. The Bone & Joint Journal 1995; 77(5): 729-732.

Pfeiffer M., Kotz R., Ledl T., Hauser G., Sluga M. Prevalence of flat foot in preschool-aged children. Paediatrics 2006; 118(2): 634-639.

Smith S.L., Buschang P.H. Longitudinal models of long bone growth during adolescence. American Journal of Human Biology 2005; 17(6): 731-745.

Kristiansen L., Gunderson R., Steen H., Reikeras O. The normal development of tibial torsion. Skeletal Radiology 2001; 30(9): 519-522.

Livingston L.A., Mandigo J.L. Bilateral within-subject Q-angle asymmetry in young adult females and males. Biomedical Sciences Instrumentation 1997; 33: 112-117.

Powers C.M. The Influence of altered lower-extremity kinematics on patellofemoral joint dysfunction: A theoretical perspective. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy 2003; 33(11): 639-646.

Jonson L.S., Gross M.T. Intraexaminer reliability, interexminer reliability, and men values for nine lower extremity skeletal measures in healthy naval midshipmen. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy 1997; 25(4): 225-263.

Herrington L., Nester C. Q-angle undervalued? The relationship between Q-angle and medio-lateral position of the patella. Clinical Biomechanics (Bristol, Avon) 2004; 19(10): 1070-1073.

Biedert R.M, Warnke K. Correlation between the Q angle and the patella position: a clinical and axial computed tomography evaluation. Archives Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery 2001; 121(6): 346-349.

Caylor D., Fites R., Worrell T.W. The relationship between quadriceps angle and anterior knee pain syndrome. Journal of Orthopaedics & Sports Physical Therapy 1993; 17(1): 11-16.

Horton M.G., Hall T.L. Quadriceps femoris muscle angle: Normal values and relationships with gender and selected skeletal measures. Physical Therapy 1989; 69 (11): 897-901.

Schulthies S.S., Francis R.S., Fisher A.G., Van De Graaff K.M. Does the Q-Angle Reflect the Force onthe Patella in the Frontal Plane? Physical Therapy 1995; 75: 24-30.

Messier S.P., Davis S.E., Curl W.W., Lowery R.B., Pack R.J. Etiologic factors associated with patellofemoral pain in runners. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 1991; 23(9):1008-1015.

Insall J., Falvo D.A., Wise D.W. Chondromalacia patellae: A prospective study. The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery [Am] 1976; 58: 1-8.

Byl T., Cole .JA., Livingston L.A. What determines the magnitude of the Q angle? A preliminary study of selected skeletal and muscular measures. Journal of Sports Rehabilitation 200; 9: 26-34.

Pefanis N., Papaharalampous X., Tsiganos G., Papadakou E., Baltopoulos P. The Effect of Q angle on Ankle Sprain Occurrence. Foot & Ankle Specialist 2009; 2(1): 22-26.

Lohman T.G., Roche A.F., Martorell R. Anthropometric Standardization Reference Manual Champaign, 1988; IL: Human Kinetics Books.

Shultz S.J., Nguyen A.D., Schmitz R.J. Differences in lower extremity anatomical alignment and postural characteristics in male and females between maturation groups. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy 2008; 38(3): 137-149.

Moreland J.R., Bassett L.W., Hanker G.J. Radiographic analysis of the axial alignment of the lower extremity. The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery 1987; 69(5): 745-749.

Magee D.J. Orthopedic physical assessment. Elsevier South Asia Edition 2008.

Stuberg W., Temme J., Kaplan P., Clarke A., Fuchs R. Measurement of tibial torsion and thigh-foot angle using goniometry and computed tomography. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research 1991; 271: 208-212.

Brody D.M. Techniques in the evaluation and treatment of the injured runner. Orthopaedic Clinics of North America 1982; 13(3): 541-558.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2019 Nihar Ranjan Mohanty, Avinash Tiwari, Shyamal Koley

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Copyright © 2015 - 2023. European Journal of Physical Education and Sport Science (ISSN 2501 - 1235) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing Group. All rights reserved.

This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library (Biblioteca Nationala a Romaniei). All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms. All authors who send their manuscripts to this journal and whose articles are published on this journal retain full copyright of their articles. All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).