DOES HAND GRIP STRENGTH CHANGE WITH GENDER? THE TRADITIONAL METHOD VS. THE ALLOMETRIC NORMALISATION METHOD

İsa Sağiroğlu, Cem Kurt, İmran Kurt Ömürlü, Fatih Çatikkaş

Abstract


The results of muscle strength and force tests were complicated by various factors, such as age, gender and level of physical activity. The most well-known factor is body size. The allometric normalising method has been recommended to obtain more precise results from strength and force tests. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine if gender plays a role in hand grip strength (HGS), and we used two methods: the traditional method (TM; non-normalised strength) and the allometric normalisation method (ANM; strength independent of body size). A total of 124 men (age: 21.0 ± 2.0 yr; BMI: 23.42 ± 2.47 kg/m2) and 77 women (age: 21.0 ± 2.0 yr; BMI: 21.07 ± 2.02 kg/m2) participated in this study. The HGS was measured in kilograms using the dominant hand via an adjustable hand grip dynamometer. When the traditional method was used, HGS was expressed in Newtons (kg × 9.81). Otherwise, a formula (Sn= S / m0,67) was used for the allometric normalisation scaling (Sn = normalized strength, S = recorded strength, m = body mass and 0.67 = allometric coefficient). Both the TM (women: HGS of 323.7 N vs. men: HGS of 461.1 N; p˂0,001) and the ANM (women: HGS of 21.31 ± 2.54 N vs. men: HGS 26.39 ± 3.78 N; p˂0,001) confirmed that there are differences in HGS as a function of gender. Replication studies are required to determine which method is more appropriate for determining the gender differences in HGS.

 

Article visualizations:

Hit counter

DOI

Keywords


geometric similarity, non-normalised strength, sexual dimorphism, strength independent of body size

References


American College of Sports Medicine (1990). Position stand on the recommended quantity and quality of exercise for developing and maintaining cardiorespiratory muscular fitness in healthy adults. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 22, 265-274.

Atkins, S.J. (2004). Normalizing expressions of strength in elite rugby league players. J Strength Cond Res, 18:53–58. doi: 10.1519/1533-4287

Blair, S.N., Kohl, H.W., Barlow, C.E., Paffenbarger, R.S., Gibbons, L.W., & Macera, C.A. (1995). Changes in physical fitness and all-cause mortality: a prospective study of healthy and unhealthy men. Jama, 273(14), 1093-1098.

Budziareck, M.B., Duarte, R.R.P., & Barbosa-Silva, M.C.G. (2008). Reference values and determinants for handgrip strength in healthy subjects. Clinical nutrition, 27(3), 357-362.

Chilima, D.M., & Ismail, S.J. (2001). Nutrition and handgrip strength of older adults in rural Malawi. Public health nutrition, 4(01), 11-17.

Dopsaj, M., Koropanovski, N., Vučković, G., Blagojević, M., Marinković, B., & Miljuš, D. (2007). Maximal isometric hand grip force in well-trained university students in Serbia: Descriptive, functional and sexual dimorphic model. Serbian journal of sports sciences, 1(1-4), 139-148.

Dopsaj, M., Ivanović, J., Blagojević, M., & Vučković, G. (2009). Descriptive, functional and sexual dimorphism of explosive isometric hand grip force in healthy university students in Serbia. Facta universitatis-series: Physical Education and Sport, 7(2), 125-139.

Haward, B.M., & Griffin, M.J. (2002). Repeatability of grip strength and dexterity tests and the effects of age and gender. International archives of occupational and environmental health, 75(1-2), 111-119.

Isen, J., McGue, M., & Iacono, W. (2014). Genetic influences on the development of grip strength in adolescence. American journal of physical anthropology, 154(2), 189-200.

Jaric, S., Ugarkovic, D., & Kukoli, M. (2002). Evaluation of methods for normalizing muscle strength in elite and young athletes. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 42(2), 141.

Jaric, S. (2003). Role of body size in the relation between muscle strength and movement performance. Exercise and sport sciences reviews, 31(1), 8-12.

Jaric, S., Mirkov, D., & Markovic, G. (2005). Normalizing physical performance tests for body size: aproposal for standardization. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 19(2), 467-474.

Kamarul, T., Admad, T.S., & Loh, W.Y. (2006). Hand grip strength in the adult Malaysian population. Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery, 14(2).

Kurt, C. (2014). The effects of vibration exercise performed in a static-squat position on the musculoskeletal fitness level, anthropometric variables, and body composition of recreationally active young women. International Journal of Academic Research, 6(1).

Laskowski, R. (2009). Symptoms of sexual dimorphism in judoists. Journal of Combat Sports and Martial Arts, 1(2), 45-52.

Leong, D.P., Teo, K.K., Rangarajan, S., Lopez-Jaramillo, P., Avezum, A., Orlandini, A., … & Rahman. O. (2015). Prognostic value of grip strength: findings from the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study. The Lancet, 386(9990), 266-273.

Nevill, A.M., Ramsbottom, R., & Williams, C. (1992). Scaling physiological measurements for individuals of different body size. European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology, 65(2), 110-117.

Newman, D.G., Pearn, J., Barnes, A., Young, C.M., Kehoe, M., & Newman, J. (1984). Norms for hand grip strength. Archives of disease in childhood,59(5), 453-459.

Noorul, H.R., Pieter, W., & Erie, Z.Z. (2008). Physical fitness of recreational adolescent taekwondo athletes. Braz J Biomotricity, 2(4), 230-240.

Norman, K., Stobäus, N., Gonzalez, M.C., Schulzke, J.D., & Pirlich, M. (2011). Hand grip strength: outcome predictor and marker of nutritional status. Clinical nutrition, 30(2), 135-142.

Ortega, F.B., Ruiz, J.R., Castillo, M.J., & Sjöström, M. (2008). Physical fitness in childhood and adolescence: a powerful marker of health. International journal of obesity, 32(1), 1-11.

Ortega, F.B., Silventoinen, K., Tynelius, P., & Rasmussen, F. (2012). Muscular strength in male adolescents and premature death: cohort study of one million participants. Bmj, 345, e7279

Pieterse, S., Manandhar, M., & Ismail, S. (2002). The association between nutritional status and handgrip strength in older Rwandan refugees. European journal of clinical nutrition, 56(10).

Puh, U. (2010). Age-related and sex-related differences in hand and pinch grip strength in adults. International Journal of Rehabilitation Research, 33(1), 4-11.

Rodriguez, B.L., Curb, J.D., Burchfiel, C.M., Abbott, R.D., Petrovitch, H., Masaki, K., & Chiu, D. (1994). Physical activity and 23-year incidence of coronary heart disease morbidity and mortality among middle-aged men. The Honolulu Heart Program. Circulation, 89(6), 2540-2544.

Ruiz, J.R., Sui, X., Lobelo, F., Morrow, J.R., Jackson, A.W., Sjöström, M., & Blair, S.N. (2008). Association between muscular strength and mortality in men: prospective cohort study. Bmj, 337, a439.

Saglam, M., Arikan, H., Savci, S., Inal-Ince, D., Bosnak-Guclu, M., Karabulut, E., & Tokgozoglu, L. (2010). International physical activity questionnaire: reliability and validity of the Turkish version. Perceptual and motor skills,111(1), 278-284.

Saha, S. (2014). Education Students and its Relationship with Body Composition and Somatotype. Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research,21(3), 502-508.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.46827/ejpe.v0i0.424

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2017 İsa Sağiroğlu, Cem Kurt, İmran Kurt Ömürlü, Fatih Çatikkaş

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Copyright © 2015-2018. European Journal of Physical Education and Sport Science (ISSN 2501 - 1235) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing Group. All rights reserved.


This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library (Biblioteca Nationala a Romaniei). All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms. All authors who send their manuscripts to this journal and whose articles are published on this journal retain full copyright of their articles. All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).