Younes Mosadegh, Zahra Salman, Ehsan Zareian, Mojtaba Gohari


Purpose: The multiple sclerosis disease is one of the most common progressive neurological diseases in young adults. According to this matter, that risk possibility is two or three times more than healthy people. The purpose of current study is to survey the effect of balance training on posture sway in multiple sclerosis patients

Study method: The current study is semi-experimental. In this regard, 20 patients with multiple sclerosis from MS Society of Iran with age range of (41/8512/59) and scale score of disability progression (0-5) were participated in this study during 10 weeks (three times a week and Each session 1.5 hour). The posture sway in subjects were measured before and after practicing with static stabilometer machine, and also the paired sample t test with (P≤0.05) for results comparison was used.

Results: The results of research showed that the effect of balance training on general fluctuations decrement (P= 0.000), anterior - posterior (P=0.02) and sway speed range (P=0.01) was meaningful but the exercises effect on medio-lateral sway (P=0.07) was meaningful.

Conclusion: The achieved results from the study showed that the selected balance training was effective on general posture sway especially anterior–posterior.


Article visualizations:

Hit counter



multiple sclerosis, static balance, balance exercises, stature fluctuations


Pardo G. Multiple sclerosis and optic neuritis. Focal points, clinical modules for ophthalmologists 2003, 21:1-13.

Pugliatti M, Rosati G, Carton H, Riise T, Drulovic J. The epidemiology of multiple sclerosis in Europe , neural 2006., 13:700- 722.

Rosati G. The prevalence of multiple sclerosis in the world: an update. Neural Sci. 2001. 22 (2):117-139.

Findling O, Sellner J, Meier N, Allum J, Vibert D, Lienert C, Mattle H. Trank Sway in mildly disabled multiple sclerosis patients with and without balance impairment. Experian res 2001., 213:363-370.

Cameron MH, Poel AJ, Haselkorn JK, Linke A, Bourdette D. Falls requiring medical attention among veterans with multiple sclerosis. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2011, 48:13-20.

Georg W, Alpers A. The impact of visual flow stimulation on anxiety, dizziness, and body sway in individuals with and without fear of heights. Behavior Research and Therapy 2009, 47:345-352.

Mostert S, Kesselring J. Effects of a short-term exercise training program on aerobic fitness, fatigue, health perception and activity level of subjects with multiple sclerosis. Mult Scler 2002, 8(2): 161-8.

Wurdeman SR, Huisinga JM, Filipi M, Stergiou N. Multiple sclerosis affects the frequency content in the vertical ground reaction Forces during walking. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon) 2011, 26(2): 207- 212.

Lesley A, Brown M. A. (2006). The effect of anxiety on the regulation of upright standing among younger and older adults. Gait & Posture. 24: 397–405.

Jalali Sh, malekian M, ghomsheh f, jafarpisheh A. Effect of predictable anxiety on body sway in athletes and non-athletes. Motor behavior and psychology journal 2010, 5:365-373(Persian).

Cattaneo D, Jonsdottir J, Zocchi M, Regola A. Effects of balance exercises on people with multiple sclerosis: a pilot study. Clin Rehabil 2007, 21(9): 771-781.

Horak FB, Diener HC. Cerebellar control of postural scaling and central set in stance. J. Neurophysiol 1994, 72:479–493.

Nashner LM. Practical biomechanics and physiology of balance. In: Jacobson G, Newman C, Kartush J, editors. Handbook of Balance Function and Testing. Mosby Year Book; St Louis, MO., 1993: 261–279.

McDonald I, Compton A. symptoms and sign in the course of disease. In: Compton A et al (eds) Mcalpins multiple sclerosis. Churchill living stone, Philadelphia 2005, 300- 334.

Michelle H, Cameron, Stephen L. Postural control in multiple sclerosis: implication for fall prevention. Curr Neurol Neurosci rep 2010, 10:407 – 412.

Cattaneo D, De Nuzzo C, Fascia T. Risk of falls in subjects with multiple sclerosis. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2002, 83:864–867.

Frzovic D, Morris ME, Vowels L. Clinical tests of standing balance: performance of persons with multiple sclerosis. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2000, 81(2): 215-21.

Stephens J, DuShuttle D, Hatcher C, Shmunes J, Slaninka C. Use of awareness through movement improves balance and balance confidence in people with multiple sclerosis: a randomized controlled study. Neurology Report 2001, 25(2): 39-49.

Kasser SL, Rose DJ, Clark S. Balance Training for Adults with Multiple Sclerosis: Multiple Case Studies. Journal of Neurologic Physical Therapy 1999, 23(1): 5-12.

Jackson k, Janet A. home balance training intervention for people with multiple sclerosis. Int J Ms care 2007, 9:111-117.

Hilfiker R, Vaney C , Gattlen B , Meichtry A , Deriaz O . Local dynamic stability as a responsive index for the evaluation of rehabilitation effect on fall risk in patients with multiple sclerosis: a longitudinal study. BMC research notes 2013, 6:260-269.

Forsberg A, Nilsagard Y, Koch L. Balance exercise for persons with multiple sclerosis using Wii games: a randomised, controlled multi-centre study. Multiple sclerosis journal 2012, 19(2):209-216.

Sosnoff J, Finlayson M, Mcauley E, Morrison S, Motl R. Home-based exercise program and fall-risk reduction in older adults with multiple sclerosis:phase 1 randomized controlled trial.clinical rehabilitation 2014., 28(3):254-263.

Brichetto G, Spallarossa P, Carvalho M, Battaglia M. The effect of Nintendo® Wii® on balance in people with multiple sclerosis:a pilot randomized control study.multiple sclerosis journal 2013., 19(9):1219-1221.

Yazdani M, Hemayattalab R, Sheikh M, Etemadifar M. the effect of a selected aquatic exercise on balance in subject with multiple sclerosis. J Res Rehabil Sci 2013., 9(2):143-52 (Persian).

Aryan R, Shaterzadehyazdi MJ, Sharafoddinzadeh N, Goharpey Sh, Arastoo AA. Investigation of body balance in people with multiple sclerosis in Khouzestan province: use of clinical functional balance tests. Sci Med J 2012., 9(1):35-43 (Persian).

Cameron MH, Lord S. Postural control in multiple sclerosis: implication for fall prevention. Current neurology and neuro science reports 2010, 10(5):407-412.

Kornatz KW, Christou EA, Enoka RM. Practice reduce motor unit discharge variability in a hand muscle and improves manual dexterity in older adults. J Appl Physiol 2005, 98: 2072-2080.

KarniA, Meyer G, Jezzard P, Adams MM, Turner R, Ungerleider LG. Functional MRI evidence for adult motor cortex plasticity during motor skill learning. Nature 1995, 377: 155-158.

Carrol TJ, Barry B, Riek S, Carson RG. Resistance training enhances the stability of sensorimotor coordination. Proc Biol Sci 2001, 268: 221-227.

Jensen JL, Marstrand PC, Nielsen JB. Motor skill training and strength training are associated with different plastic changes in the central nervous system. J Appl Physiol 2005., 99: 1558-1568.

Mattacola C, Lebsack D. Intertester reliability of assessing postural sway using the chattecx balance system.journal of athletic training 1995., 30:237-242.

Granacher U, Jordan D, Metzel M. Effect of balance training on postural sway, leg extensor strength and jump quarterly for exercise and sport. Health module 2010, 245-281.

Marsh Dw, Richard La, Williams LA, linch Kj. The relationship between balance and pitching in college baseball pitchers. J Strength Con Res2004, 18(4): 441-456.

Sharaf M, Adel S, Ayad K. Efficacy of Augmented Training Program for Hip Abductors in Stroke Patients . Med. J. Cairo Univ 2012., 80: 743-750.

Shumway-Cook A, Woollacott MH. Motor Control: Theory and Practical Applications. 2nd ed. Philadelphia 2011., PA:Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Mansfield A, peters A, Barbara l, Maki B. Perturbation based-balance training program for older adults. BMC Geriatrics 2007., 31:7-12.

Dijkerman C, Haan E. Somatosensory processes subserving perception and action. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 2007., 30: 189-239.

Costill DL. Energy requirements during exercise in water. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 1971., 11: 87-92.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2017 Younes Mosadegh, Zahra Salman, Ehsan Zareian, Mojtaba Gohari

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Copyright © 2015-2022. European Journal of Physical Education and Sport Science (ISSN 2501 - 1235) is a registered trademark of Open Access Publishing Group. All rights reserved.

This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library (Biblioteca Nationala a Romaniei). All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms. All authors who send their manuscripts to this journal and whose articles are published on this journal retain full copyright of their articles. All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).