Lisbeth O. Swain, Timothy D. Swain


We examined the unmanipulated performance of students under real classroom conditions in order to assess the effect of a technology-enhanced hybrid learning approach to second language, (L2) instruction on beginning and advanced Spanish language learners. This research focused on the transition period of technology implementation when the entire section of Spanish of a modern language department of a liberal arts university transitioned from traditional face-to-face instruction, to a technology-enhanced hybrid learning approach with concurrent reduction in face-to-face classroom hours. This implementation provided an opportunity to compare the performance of students prior to and during the transition to hybrid model of instruction across multiple language proficiency levels. This research is designed to critically evaluate the performance of students under real classroom conditions in order to examine the effectiveness of a hybrid approach during its implementation such that the performance of students participating in the methodological transition can be understood in light of the performance of students in the previous quarters. The results indicate that introductory students did not realize the full potential benefits of hybrid instruction in the transition period, but that the performance of advanced students was improved, suggesting that a phased-in approach to hybrid instruction implementation, where advanced students are the first to transition to hybrid instruction, may supplement training experiences for instructors and support staff and improve overall student success during technology implementation. 


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real classroom conditions, computer assisted language learning, online workbook, technology-enhanced hybrid learning, class performance, technology effectiveness


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