HOW TO KILL A LANGUAGE: PLANNING, DIGLOSSIA, BI-NORMATIVISM, THE INTERNET AND GALICIAN

Alex De Lusignan Fan Moniz

Abstract


Galician, one of Spain’s minority languages has existed for as long as Spanish, at least. Galician-Portuguese was a completely formed language with broadly homogenous written and spoken norms until two slightly different branches gradually emerged: Galician and Portuguese, starting in the thirteenth century. While Portuguese evolved and became one of today’s languages spoken across the world, Galician was confined and relegated to a regional vernacular, spoken in the province of Galicia and fringes of Asturias, in the Northwesternmost corner of Spain, bordering with Portugal. From the fifteenth to the nineteenth centuries, Galician ceased to exist in the written form and when it reappeared, it had adopted the Spanish norms. It was only in the 1980’s modern Spain and its accession to the EEC (now EU), that Galician finally (re)gained the status of official minority language in coexistence with the national language, Spanish or Castilian. Yet, whilst enjoying the official status protection from the Spanish State and fostered by the Council of Europe in terms of corpus and policy planning, education, usage in the press, media all aimed at revitalisation, Galician has not only been losing status and being eroded in an ever shifting diglossia relationship with Spanish, but also lost L1 speakers in the past forty years, and younger generations are more and more likely to either speak Galician as L2 or worse, chose not to speak it at all. This situation presents a contradiction and is the cause of conflict between different factions of Galician speakers, the Galegofalantes. Why and how can it be that a language which was repressed for over four hundred years, starts declining precisely after it was given official support? What factors played or are still at play in the steady decline and erosion of Galician? A study into historical, social, economic, cultural, regional, and international factors, events and particularly politically motivated Language Planning Policies can partly explain the precariousness of the Galician language. The last forty years and particularly the new Millenium and the Internet, brought in fast-paced global changes with significant technological advances often requiring adaptation, and sometimes disintegration of traditional socio-cultural communities. The timing was unfavourable towards Galician, aided by consistent nationalist glottopolitics, the planned syntactic corpus fostered by the successive regional governments and most local authorities, led to further deterioration and stagnation of Galician whilst galvanising further lexical and semantic influx of Spanish into the Galician language. Access to education, libraries, study materials, publications, research tools on the Internet is often available in Spanish only. Higher education and academia are dominated by Spanish, as are public services, institutions, the judicial system, mass-media and communication at all levels in everyday life. Some Galicians are happy with the pro-Spanish language norm also known as Isolationism, seemingly oblivious of the language-shift and replacement even in remote, rural societies. Others demand a Galician spelling much closer to Portuguese, her natural sibling and see the official re-unification, or Reintegrationism, with the Lusophone world as the only way to save Galician from an impending death. With deep-rooted divisions and conflicts, a compromise between Isolationists and Reintegrationists seems unlikely, except if there is markedly political change and with that a reversed language shift will take place.

Article visualizations:

Hit counter


Keywords


minoritized languages, European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages, Portuguese dialects, language planning and policy, diglossia, glottopolitics, linguistic corpora, Galician, language death

Full Text:

PDF

References


Academia das Ciências de Lisboa, 1867-1873. Portugaliæ Monumenta Historica a Sæculo Octavo post Christum usque ad Quintum Decimum- Diplomata et Chartæ, vol I. ‘Lauridosa’ [Accessed 22 April 2021]

AGAL (Associaçom Galega da Língua), 2017. Ortografia galega moderna: confluente com o português no mundo. [Accessed 16 May 2021]

AGLP, 2009. Academia Galega da Língua Portuguesa: AGLP foi apresentada em Bruxelas https://www.academiagalega.org/academia/info-atualidade/item/1588-aglp-foi-apresentada-em-bruxelas.html. [Consulted online, 20/05/2021]

Alonso, A., 1951. Centro Virtual Cervantes, Historia Del Ceceo Y Del Seseo Españoles. Tomo II, Nos.1, 2 and 3. [Accessed 23 April 2021]

Aram, B., 2006. ‘Monarchs of Spain’, vol. 2. Iberia and the Americas. Pp.725. [Accessed 11 April 2021]

Asociación Socio-Pedagóxia Galega (AS-PG), CIG Ensino, 2010. NÒS Diario ‘Reivindican o valor da escola na normalización das linguas minorizadas’ https://www.nosdiario.gal/articulo/lingua/reivindican-valor-da-escola-normalizacion-das-linguas-minorizadas/20200124175916090138.html. [Consulted online 22/05/21]

Bagno, M., 2007. Gramática Histórica do latim ao português brasileiro, Universidade de Brasilia. Pp.11-13. [Accessed 11 May 2021]

Banza, A. and Gonçalves, M. Cátedra UNESCO, 2018. Roteiro de História da Língua Portuguesa. Pp.29-37 [Accessed 13 April 2021]

Blackledge, A., 2007. Monolingual ideologies in multilingual states: Language, hegemony, and social justice in Western liberal democracies. [Accessed 23 May 2021]

Bobillo García at Al., 1998. Projecto de investigação ADPA - Análise do Discurso Público Actual ‘Las prácticas de habla en Galiza: entre el conflicto lingüístico y la armonía bilingüe (conexiones macro-micro en el discurso sociolingüístico gallego)’ [Accessed 13 May 2021]

Boletín Oficial del Estado (BOE), 1978. Spanish Constitution (English version) https://www.boe.es/legislacion/documentos/ConstitucionINGLES.pdf, Official gazette publication, consulted online 21/05/21., BOE Legislación Consolidada, ley 3/1983, de 15 de junio, de normalización lingüística. [Consulted online 17/06/21]

British Council, 2013. British Council and prepared by Teresa Tinsley and Kathryn Board of Alcantara Communications, ‘Languages for the Future- Which languages the UK needs most and why’. [Accessed 27 April 2021]

Carrère d’Encausse, H., 2008. Académie Française, Sèance annuelle: Halte à la « complainte du français perdu ». (Halting the ‘complaining about lost French’ (language). [Accessed 9 April 2021]

Codax, M. ca. 1230 AD. Littera-FCSH, 2012. Medieval Galician-Portuguese Songs, Vindel Parchment, Folio 1, Cantigas d’Amigo, ‘Ondas do mar de Vigo’, https://cantigas.fcsh.unl.pt/pergaminhovindel. [Consulted online 12/05/21]

Comissom Lingüística da Associaçom Galega da Língua, 2012. Modelo Lexical Galego: Fundamentos Da Codificaçom Lexical Do Galego-Português Da Galiza. /, 2010. ‘Por um Galego Extenso e Útil Leituras da Língua de Aquém e de Além.’ [Accessed 09 May 2021]

Linguistic Commission of the Galician Language Association (AGAL), 2012. Galician Lexical Model: Fundamentals of Galician-Portuguese lexical codification in Galician. ‘For an Extensive and Useful Galician Readings of the Language of Here and Beyond.’ [Accessed 29 April 2021]

Council of Europe (COE), 2009. Language(s) of schooling., 2010. Language Policy Division: Language and school subjects. Linguistic dimensions of knowledge building in school curricula. [Accessed 12 May 2021]

Cooper, R. 1989. Language Planning & Social Change, CUP, Pp.8-69 [Accessed 5 May 2021]

CORDIS 304104 European Commission, 2016. Perpetrators, Ordinary People and Violence during the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939): the case of Galicia [Accessed 01 May 2021]

Council of Europe, 2002 https://rm.coe.int/16806d817d., Pp.30. [Consulted online 12/05/21]

Council of Europe, 1992. ETS No.148, ratified and implemented 1998. European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages [Accessed 23 May 2021]

Cunha, C., 1956. Biblioteca Virtual Miguel De Cervantes: http://www.cervantesvirtual.com/obra-visor/o-cancioneiro-de-martin-codax--0/html/ffd43f04-82b1-11df-acc7-002185ce6064_7.html, O Cancioneiro de Martin Codax. Pp.11-36. [Consulted online 20/05/21]

De Castro, R. 1880. La Ilustración Gallega y Asturiana y La Propaganda Literaria. Follas Novas, poema XVIII, excerpt. [Accessed 27 April 2021]

ELEN, 2019. Co-official language discrimination in Spain, ELEN submits Report to UN Universal Periodic Review. https://elen.ngo/2019/09/13/co-official-language-discrimination-in-spain-elen-submits-report-to-un/ [Consulted online, 23/05/21]

Eixo Atlantico, 2021. O Eixo-Atlântico do Noroeste Peninsular, https://www.eixoatlantico.com/en/, [Consulted online, 30/5/21]

European Union, 2000. European Parliament Language Policy, Treaty of Lisbon Articles 21 & 22: https://www.europarl.europa.eu/factsheets/en/sheet/142/language-policy [Consulted online 14/06/21]

Eurostat, 2020. Regional Innovation Monitor Plus/Region/Galicia: https://ec.europa.eu/growth/tools-databases/regional-innovation-monitor/base-profile/galicia. [Consulted online 23/05/21]

Ferguson, C. A., 1959. Word, 15. Pp.325-340. [Accessed 016 May 2021]

French Republic, 1994. Loi n° 94-665 du 4 août 1994 relative à l'emploi de la langue française (Law No. 94-665 of 4 August 1994 concerning the usage of the French language). [Accessed 03 May 2021]

Ferreira, M., 2018. Martin Codax: a história que a música conta / Martin Codax: time story told in music. [Accessed 13 May 2021]

Freixeiro Mato, X., 2009. Revista galega de filoloxia. Lingua galega e preconcepto. (Galician language and prejudice) Pp.115-132. /, 2017. Autoodio (Self-hatred) ELG. A lingua tiveran por lingua d’escravos. O autoodio como concepto sociolingüístico (Their language was one of slaves. Self-hatred as sociolinguistic concept). [Accessed 30 May 2021]

Garrido, C. 2020. nòs Diario, Aspetos essenciais do reintegracionismo escamoteados no discurso público. ‘Essential aspects of Reintegrationism disguised in public discourse.’ González Velasco, P., 2020. El Trapézio: Galiza promove candidatura da Espanha como observadora associada da lusofonia. https://eltrapezio.eu/pt-pt/espanha/galiza-promove-candidatura-da-espanha-como-observadora-associada-da-lusofonia_5094.html. [Consulted online 29/05/21]

Gouvernement Français, Ministère de la Culture, 2020. ‘Coronavirus, les mots pour le dire.’ https://www.culture.gouv.fr/Actualites/Coronavirus-les-mots-pour-le-dire. [Consulted online 17/05/21]

Hobsbawm, E.J., 1998. Nations and Nationalism since 1780: Programme, Myth, Reality. [Accessed 27 May 2021]

IGE- Instituto Galego de Estatística, https://www.ige.eu/ [Consulted online 16/05/21] ‘Enquisa de condicións de vida das familias. Coñecemento e uso do galego. Ano 2013. Resumo de resultados’

“Research on family living conditions. Knowledge and usage of Galician. Year 2013. Results” [Consulted online 17/05/21]

Iglesias, U., 2020. Galicia Confidencial, “crianzas entran falando galego e acaban falando castelán, nunca ao revés": http://www.galiciaconfidencial.com/noticia/146930-lingua-xaque-ensino-crianzas-entran-falando-galego-acaban-falando-castelan-reves. “children start (school) speaking Galician and end up speaking Spanish, never the reverse.” [Consulted online 30/05/21]

Kaplan, R., 2008. Language Planning and Policy in Europe: The Baltic States, Ireland, and Italy. Clevedon. Multilingual Matters. [Accessed 11 April 2021]

Konstali, M., 2010. Lëtzebuergesch – vom Dialekt zur Nationalsprache. https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/30854607.pdf. [Consulted online, 21/05/21]

Lagares, X. and Monteagudo H., 2021. Núcleo de Estudos Galegos (NUE). Galego e Português Brasileiro: história, variação e mudança. (Galician and Brazilian-Portuguese: history, variation, and change,) http://www.nueg.uff.br/galego-e-portugues-brasileiro/ [Consulted online 21/05/21]

Language Council of Norway (Språkrådet). https://www.sprakradet.no/Vi-og-vart/Om-oss/English-and-other-languages/English/norwegian-bokmal-vs.-nynorsk/ [Consulted online, 21/05/21]

Lapa, M., 1929. Das origens da poesia lírica em Portual na Idade-Média. (Origins of lyrical poetry in Portugal in the Middle-Ages). [Accessed 16 May 2021]

Liddicoat, A., 2007. Language Planning and Policy: Issues in Language Planning and Literacy. [Accessed 19 May 2021]

Loia.org, Council of Galician Culture, Language and Sociolinguistics Documentation Centre of Galicia. 4. Rosalía de Castro and the Rexurdimento, http://consellodacultura.gal/cdsg/loia/historia.php?idioma=2&id=72#f544, [Consulted online 20/05/21]

López Quiroga, J., 2018. La Aventura de la historia: Suevos, el primer reino medieval de Occidente. Pp.24-27. [Accessed 17 April 2021]

Maragoto, E., Nós Televisión, 2019. Galego e português no supermercado https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GEo9CHdM6IA [Consulted online 23/05/21]

Marcellesi, J.P., 1986. Langages, 21ᵉ année, n°83, 1986. Glottopolitique, sous la direction de Jean-Baptiste Marcellesi. [Consulted online 17/05/21]

Martins Esteves, H., 1997. Ensaio de Gramática do Céltico Antigo Comum. /, 2010. Academia Galega, Volume 1: "Cantares Galegos" de Rosália de Castro. [Accessed 27 May 2021]

Méndez, G., 2007. Atlas básico do Eixo Atlántico e Euro-rexión Galiza en Norte de Portugal

‘Basic Atlas of the Eixo-Atlantico and Galicia-Norther Portugal Euro-Region’. [Accessed 27 April 2021]

Mera Quintas, E., 2018. A estratégia binormativista. Debate Assemblear Sobre O Binormativismo (Ponte Vedra, 1-12-2018): https://www.loomio.org/d/mXDN3WrZ/a-estrategia-binormativista.[Consulted online 28/05/21]

Molaie, S., 2018. Stroum Center for Jewish Studies: How to revive an ancient language, according to 19th-century Hebrew and Persian revivalists. [Accessed 11 April 2021]

Moreira, M., 2011. USC, Facultade de Filoloxía Departamento de Literatura Española, Teoría da Literatura e Lingüística Xeral. Contra a morte das linguas: o caso do galego, Pp.174. [Accessed 16 April 2021]

Monteagudo, H. and Lagares, X., 2017. Galego e Português Brasileiro história, variação e mudança. Labor Histórico, vol.3 No.2. Pp.12-14. [Accessed 04 May 2021]

Morgenthaler García, L. and Amorós-Negre, C., 2019. Migration and glottopolitics in the Spanish-speaking world: introductory remarks. Pp.1-11. [Accessed 17 April 2021]

Nandi, A., (2017). Language Policies and Linguistic Culture in Galicia. https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/96665355.pdf. Pp. 28-34. [Consulted online 20/05/21]

Nettle & Romaine 2000, Pp. 40, cited in Hoffmann 2009, Pp. 6., cited by Almurashi, W., 2017. WHY WE SHOULD CARE ABOUT LANGUAGE DEATH. [Accessed 16 April 2021]

Peinado Santaella, R., 2011. El Reino de Granada tras la conquista castellana. [Accessed 19 May 2021]

Penabade Rei, B., 2011. Ricardo Carvalho Calero: planificador da língua galega. [Accessed 13 April 2021]

Real Academia Galega (RAG), González et Al., 2010. O galego Segundo a mocidade: uma achega ás actitudes e discursos sociais baseado en ténicas experimentais e cualitativas. (Galician according to the young: an approach to social attitudes and discourses based on experimental and qualitative techniques.). [Accessed 09 May 2021]

Reagan, T., 1988. World Education Monograph Series, Number One. The "Language Struggle" in South Africa: Emergence and Development in Educational Policy. [Accessed 14 April 2021]

Rodrigues, H., 2012. Galegos para as Américas no século XIX documentados em Portugal. XV Encuentro de Latinoamericanistas Españoles, Nov 2012, Madrid, Spain. Pp.959-989. [Accessed 04 May 2021]

Rodríguez, J. L., 2000. Actas do Simposio Ricardo Carvalho Calero Memoria do Século. [Accessed 17 May 2021]

Ricardo Carvalho Calero, Gallaecia Magna. [Accessed 29 May 2021]

Sampedro, L., 2012. Para Compreender A Euro-Região Galiza – Norte De Portugal (Vol 1), FEUC - Faculdade de Economia da Universidade de Coimbra. [Accessed 12 April 2021]

Silva, B., Rodrigues X., and Vaquero I., 2011. Educación e linguas en Galicia: A planificación para a normalización lingüística nos centros de ensino non universitarios. [Accessed 5 May 2021]

Skobel, E., 2010. Reversing Language Shift in Galicia a Present-Day Perspective. Pp.21. [Accessed 09 May 2021]

Souto Cabo, A., 2003. Revista Galega de Filoloxía, Monografia 5. Documentos galego-portugueses dos séculos XII e XIII. Pp. 25-27. [Accessed 19 May 2021]

Spanish Constitution, 1978. Article 66.1. Cortes Generales, http://www.cortesgenerales.es/ [Consulted online, 18/05/21]

SAHO (South African History Online), 2013. The June 16 Soweto Youth Uprising,

https://www.sahistory.org.za/article/june-16-soweto-youth-uprising Consulted online 25/05/21 [Consulted online, 13/05/21]

Torres Feijó, E., 2009. Navegações v. 2, n. 1, ‘A fabricaçom de ideias sobre o mundo lusófono na literatura galega na década de 70: construçom em perspectiva.’, Pp.24-30. [Accessed 28 April 2021]

Trudgill, P., 1992. Ausbau sociolinguistics and the perception of language status in contemporary Europe. [Accessed 17 April 2021]

Wardhaugh, R. and Fuller, J., 2014. An Introduction to Sociolinguistics, Ch 14, Language Policy and Planning. Pp.367-393. [Accessed 11 April 2021]

Weinstein, B., 1980. Language Problems and Language Planning. [Accessed 23 May 2021]




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.46827/ejals.v4i1.287

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

The research works published in this journal are free to be accessed. They can be shared (copied and redistributed in any medium or format) and\or adapted (remixed, transformed, and built upon the material for any purpose, commercially and\or not commercially) under the following terms: attribution (appropriate credit must be given indicating original authors, research work name and publication name mentioning if changes were made) and without adding additional restrictions (without restricting others from doing anything the actual license permits). Authors retain the full copyright of their published research works and cannot revoke these freedoms as long as the license terms are followed.

Copyright © 2015-2018. European Journal of Applied Linguistics Studies (ISSN 2602 - 0254 / ISSN-L 2602 - 0254). All rights reserved.


This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library. All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms. All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and standards formulated by Budapest Open Access Initiative (2002), the Bethesda Statement on Open Access Publishing (2003) and Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities (2003) and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Copyrights of the published research works are retained by authors.