Christine W. Makokha, Owino Rew, Mary Khejeri


The intention of projects donors will be that the stakeholders understand their terms and conditions in implementing projects. It is important that conditions are communicated clearly for the sake of continued funding since grass root level; using English is not a viable option, as majority of target group members are not proficient in the language. The research will attempt to analyze the language used in sensitizing and enhancing effective communication to the stakeholders on suggested projects. This study will investigate the influence of Lumarama-English code-switching in two local NGO programmes in Butere District, Kakamega County in Kenya. The objectives of this paper were to establish the matrix/embedded languages used by NGOs in launching of a new programs in Butere Sub County. The Myer-Scotton’s Theory guides this paper. An explanatory research design was utilised for this research with the target population consisting of project beneficiaries (community members) and donor agents’ developmental workers. Questionnaires and focus group discussions instruments were data collection instruments used for this study. Study findings revealed that code-switching between Lumarama (ML) and English (EL) was common in the implementation of various development programmes in the Sub County. The development workers were found to have the ability of interpreting the donors’ project documents (which were mostly in English) to Lumarama although to a moderate extent. The research concluded that implementation of projects was influenced by code-switching matrix used by development workers in Butere Sub County. The study recommends that there is need for donors to produce and translate project documents in Kiswahili, English and Lumarama.


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