Benson Kayode Okundare


In Nigeria today, most speakers of English are second users of the language because they acquire their different mother tongues before they come to learn English. This article studied the phonological deviation among speakers of English at the Federal Polytechnic. Nasarawa. Adopting the survey research design, the oral production test (OPT) was used whereby thirty (30) students were randomly selected to speak on some topical issues and issues; related to academics such as Examination Malpractice in Nigeria’s Higher Institutions, Campus Gangsterism, High Rate of Unemployment in Nigeria, The 2019 General Election and hate speeches among politicians during the 2019 electioneering campaign. The student’s speeches were recorded and transcribed in their raw forms and compared with the Received Pronunciation (RP) for the purpose of analysis. The results showed that there were deviations in the production of some sounds that are not present in the phonetic inventory of most Nigerian languages as well as wrong placement of stress on English words. The results also showed that the mother tongue plays a significant role in the wrong pronunciation of English words by most Nigerian English bilinguals.


Article visualizations:

Hit counter


phonological deviation, second language, speakers

Full Text:



Adedimeji, M.A. (2007) "The Linguistic Features of Nigerian English and their Implications for 21st Century English Pedagoo". in S.E. Dandaura (Ed). The Abuja Communicator, Abuja: Department of Theater Arts, University of Abuja. Vol.(3). pp. 166-183.

Adejare, O. and Adejare, R. Abonego (1996) Tertiary English Grammar. Lagos: Difamo Books.

Adeniyi, K.O. (2006) "Attitude to Nigerian English Among Lagos State Teachers: A Sociolinguistics Survey". Unpublished PhD Dissertation, University of Ilorin.

Adetugbo, A. (1987) "Nigerian English Phonology: Is there any Standard?". Lagos Review of English Studies Vol. IX. 1993) English Phonetics: A Course Text. Lagos: University of Lagos Press.

Adewole, A.A. (2007) "A Lexico-Semantic Interpretation of Stress Placement of English Words and Sentence". Journal of Art and Education Vol I (1):230-242, Sept.

Akande, A. T. (2008) "The Verb in Standard Nigeria English and Nigeria Pidgin English: A Sociolinguistics Approach". Unpublished PhD Thesis, University of Leeds, Leeds.

Akeredolu - Ale, B. (2005) "Remedying Some Basic Pronunciation Errors through perception and Production Drills: A Teacher's Report" ELTT Journal 4(1).

Akmajian, A. (2001) Linguistics: An Introduction to Language and Communication. New York: U.S.A. Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Ashikeni, T.O. and Akoshi, (2009) Aspect of Applied Linguistics for Schools and Colleges. Markudi: Aboki Publishers.

Bayo, Ayo (1996) Overview of English Language in Nigeria, Ibadan: University Press.

Bernstein, B. (1971) Class Codes and Control I: Theoretical Studies Toward a Sociology of Language. London: Routledge and Kegan Pant.

Bright, J.A. and Mcgregor, G.P. (1982) Teaching English as a Second Language London: Longman Group.

Fromkin, V. and Rodman, R. (1978) An Introduction to Language. Network: Holt Rinchart and Winston.

Gimson, A.C. (1980) An Introduction to the Pronunciation of English London: Edward Arnold Publishers Ltd.

Grant, N., Olagoke, N.S., and Jowitt, D. (2008) Senior English Project for Secondary Schools. Revised Edition London: Pearson Education.

Grosjean, F. (1992) Life withTwo Languages. Harvard: University Press.

Hyman, L.M. (1975) Phonology: Theory and Analysis. New York: Holt Rinechart and Winston.

Jowit, D. (1991) Nigerian English Usage: An Introduction. Lagos: Longman.

Ladefoged, P. (1975) A Course in Phonetics. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich In.

Lado, R. (1985) Linguistics Across Cultures: Applied Linguistics for Language Teachers. Michigan: University of Michigan Press.

Nida, E.A. (1957) Learning a Foreign Language. Michigan: Frandshop Press.

Osisanwo, A. (2012) Fundamentals of English Phonetics and Phonology. Lagos: Femolus Fetop Publishers.

Roach, P. (2000) English Phonetics and Phonology. London: Cambridge University.

Romaine, S. (2005) Bilingualism. London: Blackwell Publishers.

Williams, D. (1999). English Language Teaching: An Integrated Approach. Ibadan Spectrum Books.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2023 Benson Kayode Okundare

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

The research works published in this journal are free to be accessed. They can be shared (copied and redistributed in any medium or format) and\or adapted (remixed, transformed, and built upon the material for any purpose, commercially and\or not commercially) under the following terms: attribution (appropriate credit must be given indicating original authors, research work name and publication name mentioning if changes were made) and without adding additional restrictions (without restricting others from doing anything the actual license permits). Authors retain the full copyright of their published research works and cannot revoke these freedoms as long as the license terms are followed.

Copyright © 2017-2023. European Journal of Literature, Language and Linguistics Studies (ISSN 2559 - 7914 / ISSN-L 2559 - 7914). All rights reserved.

This journal is a serial publication uniquely identified by an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) serial number certificate issued by Romanian National Library. All the research works are uniquely identified by a CrossRef DOI digital object identifier supplied by indexing and repository platforms. All the research works published on this journal are meeting the Open Access Publishing requirements and standards formulated by Budapest Open Access Initiative (2002), the Bethesda Statement on Open Access Publishing (2003) and  Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities (2003) and can be freely accessed, shared, modified, distributed and used in educational, commercial and non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Copyrights of the published research works are retained by authors.